The Impacts of Atomic Weapons: Terrorist Risk.

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Atomic Weapons versus Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD or Dirty Bomb) ... No chain response or atomic yield. By and large the blast will bring about more harm ...
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The Effects of Nuclear Weapons: Terrorist Threat

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Purpose The motivation behind this presentation is to furnish the peruser with an outline of atomic weapons and their belongings. Subjects will include: Types of weapons Energy discharge Types of Detonation Historical Information Effects

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Nuclear Weapons versus Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD or Dirty Bomb) Nuclear weapons Use traditional explosives to make super-minimum amount of fissionable atomic material Super-minimum amount is fit for self-maintaining, quick, uncontrolled chain response Resultant touchy yield can be requests of extent higher than conceivable with customary materials RDD Use ordinary explosives to spread or scatter radioactive material No chain response or atomic yield In many cases the blast will bring about more harm than the radioactive material scattering

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Remaining examination The rest of this presentation depicts atomic weapons For additional data on RDD weapons see: rm/doc-accumulations/reality sheets/grimy bombs.pdf

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Nuclear Weapons Types Fission gadgets Uranium ( 235 U) or Plutonium ( 239 Pu) Gun Type Explosively consolidate two sub-basic gatherings Implosion Type Symmetrically implode a circle of sub-basic thickness Required for 239 Pu Terrorist Threat Stolen military gadget Improvised Nuclear Device (IND), i.e. "home made" 235 U Gun-sort Weapon most effortless to develop Likely 20 kT or less

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Nuclear Weapons Types, con\'t. Atomic (Fusion) gadgets Unlikely to be a terrorist gadget Military application High-innovation

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Energy Equivalents of one Kiloton of TNT Complete copy up (splitting) of 56 g ( ~ 2 ounces ) of 235 U or 239 Pu 1.15 x 10 6 kilowatt-hours 1.8 x 10 9 British warm units 14,500 Gallons of Gasoline 4/5 the vitality created by the Hoover Dam in 60 minutes

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Types of Detonations from a Terrorist Threat Most likely Surface: Truck Underwater: Boat Less likely Air: Private plane Sub-surface: Subway Least likely High Altitude: Military Delivery Only

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Distribution of Energy of an Air Burst beneath 100,000 ft Blast and Thermal record for 85% of the Energy discharged

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Nuclear Weapon Experience Two non-testing explosions Hiroshima Little Boy 235 U Gun-Type Device Nagasaki Fat Man 239 Pu Implosion Device

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Results of a Nuclear Explosion 80,000 passings in Hiroshima and 20,000 passings in Nagasaki Nearly all passings because of Blast and Thermal Few passings credited to Radiation Prompt or Delayed

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Results of a Nuclear Explosion Expect few, assuming any, survivors close ground-zero However, little involvement in "urban" environment Buildings will give protecting Blast Thermal Radiation Residual radioactive environment, huge effect on salvage operations

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Hiroshima Before Hiroshima After

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Weapon Effects Prompt impacts higher with airburst Blast Thermal Prompt Radiation Prompt impacts 30-half lessened with surface burst Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Primarily comes about because of a high-height blast Not a reasonable impact from a terrorist explosion Residual impacts higher with surface burst Residual Radioactivity (Fallout)

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Weapon Effects (Based on a 20 kt low-elevation Airblast) Peak stun wave overpressure ~14 psi @ ¼ mile Thermal vitality ~18 cal/cm 2 @ 1 mile Prompt radiation measurement Neutron ~ 0.8 Gy @ 1 mile g - beam ~ 1.2 Gy @ 1 mile

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Residual Radiation (Fallout) Difficult to foresee effect to a particular territory Depends on: Type of weapon Type of burst Air Surface Wind designs Terrain Little information for a "Urban" Environment

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Fallout, con\'t. Rot rate: t can be at whatever time unit Average photon vitality ~0.7 MeV

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Summary A terrorist utilization of an atomic weapon would no doubt include: 235 U Gun-sort gadget Surface explosion Yield of 20 kt or less The significant wounds and impacts would be brought on by: Blast and stun Thermal Rescue endeavors relate for the most part to wounds far off from ground zero Radiation security fundamental for salvage of protected survivors closer ground zero Little involvement with blast in a "Urban" situation

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References Glasstone and Dolan, "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons," Published by US DoD and Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington DC, 1977. Ferguson and Potter, "The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism," Monterey Institute – Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey, CA, 2004. Auxier J, "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons," Health Physics Summer School, Gaithersburg, MD, July 2004. Open Protection from Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Terrorism, Ed. by Brodsky, Johnson and Goans, Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 2004.

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