The Journal Project: Written Expression of Trauma as Intervention for High School Students in Ayacucho Peru .


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The Journal Project: Written Expression of Trauma as Intervention for High School Students in Ayacucho Peru. Shannon Curry Westgaard, MA Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education & Psychology. Presentation Outline. Project Overview and Goals Cultural Considerations in Therapy
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The Journal Project: Written Expression of Trauma as Intervention for High School Students in Ayacucho Peru Shannon Curry Westgaard, MA Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education & Psychology

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Presentation Outline Project Overview and Goals Cultural Considerations in Therapy History, Benefits, and Mechanisms of Written Expression Processing Traumatic Events Trauma in Ayacucho, Peru-The Sendero Luminoso Guerilla Movement & Effects of War and Terrorism on Child Development

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Project Goals 1. To figure out if or not expressive composition is a viable helpful intercession for young people in Ayacucho, Peru; a group that exhibits leftover injury from the Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerrilla war which threatened the Andes district of Peru for about two decades. 2. To energize the advancement of confirmation based socially significant remedial intercessions 3. To include the group of Ayacucho Peru in the present research extend.

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Purpose of the Proposed Study Non-articulation of enthusiastic encounters and injury can prompt sadness and divided individual story (Pennebaker, Mayne & Francis, 1997; Gallardo & Curry, in press). Composed expression as a remedial intercession: Shown to diminishing sadness, trouble, pessimistic disposition, & contrary influence connected with traumatic encounters (Sloan & Marx, 2004) Accelerates the adapting procedure (Pennebaker, Colder, & Sharp, 1990) Facilitates subjective absorption of traumatic experience into individual story (Smyth, 1998) Does not require interpersonal divulgence Free of cost Portable Without time-imperatives

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Cultural Interventions and Considerations Latino Cultural Themes as a General Guide (not comprehensive) More than 1/2 of Latino customers in U.S. end psychological well-being consideration after only one treatment session (Cheung, 1991)

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Traditional Western Therapeutic Model Unfamiliar Setting (Counseling Office) Unfamiliar Person (Counselor) Time-Structured (50 min. session) Can be exorbitant

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Latino Cultural Themes that Conflict with Western Therapy Orgullo : Pride/respect. Appearance of individual issues to non-relatives might be viewed as "losing face." Machismo : Emphasis on quality, poise, regard, dauntlessness, and family duty. May interpret as distress with open articulation of passionate helplessness. Familismo : Overall significance of family. Both Orgullo and Machismo are identified with this. Personalismo : People first. May strife with Western accentuation on time structures (e.g., strict begin and end times). (Neff, 2001; Gallardo & Curry, in press)

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Pennebaker & Beall (1983) Examination of the physical and mental impacts of uncovering traumatic occasions free of social criticism The Inhibition Model 4 Groups: Trauma-Fact, Trauma-Emotion Trauma-Combination Control Short-term Effects Inhibition Model Implications

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Pennebaker & Beall (1983) Continued 3 Month Follow-Up Trauma-Emotion: "It helped me consider what I felt amid those times. I never acknowledged how it influenced me." Trauma-Combination: "In spite of the fact that I have not chatted with anybody about what I thought of, I was at long last ready to manage it, work through the torment as opposed to attempting to shut it out. Presently it doesn\'t hurt to consider it." A procedure past purgation

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Design Characteristics of Past Studies Using Written Expression Pennebaker, Colder, & Sharp, 1990; Lewis & Butcher, 1992; Krantz & Pennebaker, 1996; Pennebaker, 1997; Pennebaker, Mayne, & Francis 1997; Smyth & Greenberg, 2000; Smyth & Helm, 2003; Alford, et al., 2005 1-5 days in length, 15-30 minute composition sessions Superficial versus Enthusiastic Topics No criticism given

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Written Expression Across Populations Comparable advantages crosswise over instruction, SES, sex, ethnicity, and culture (Pennebaker & Seagal, 1999; Ram ír ez-Esparza & Pennebaker, 2006) Graduate degree experts College students Medical understudies Maximum security detainees, sixth grade training Crime casualties Chronic agony sufferers Children Elderly Major U.S. ethnic gatherings English-speakers Non-English speakers Limited worldwide examples

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Traumatic Memories Traumatic Memories as tangible encounters (Terr, 1993), hard to coordinate into story of individual experience (Wall & Levey, 2005) Ordinary Memories as segments of individual account (Christianson, 1992; van der Kold, 1994)

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Writing as Integration of Traumatic Memories Confrontation/acknowledgment of traumatic memory Process of understanding (causes, feelings, suggestions, individual importance) Merging of Unconscious & Conscious (Smyth & Greenberg, 2000) Reclaiming beneficial experience Integration into individual story Fragmented Self Cohesive Self Linguistic Inquiry Word Count-Increase in knowledge related words (Alford, 2005; Pennebaker & Beall, 1983; Pennebaker, Mayne, & Francis, 1997)

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Evidence of a Cognitive Process Meta-expository correlation of stretch administration mediations crosswise over 3,736 members (Blonk et al., 2001) Translation of experience into dialect: Dance, music, and workmanship treatments contrasted with treatments including interpretation of experience into composing (Krantz & Pennebaker, 1996) Written expression and interpersonal treatment among mentally sound specimens (Donnelly & Murray, 1991; Pennebaker, 1997)

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Trauma in Peru: The Manchay Tiempo (Time of Fear) Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) A.K.A. Comrade Party of Peru May seventeenth, 1980-Burning of presidential tallying stations "The Moral Compaign" April 1983-Massacre in Huancasancos 69 villagers killed 11 ladies (some pregnant) 18 youngsters (as youthful as 6-months-old) Mid-1980\'s far reaching fear based oppression

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Not Just Sendero Luminoso… 1981: Andes get to be "Crisis Zone," military sent to keep "suspicious people" Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2003) report: 1980 - 2000: 69,280 dead or vanished Half ascribed to Sendero Luminoso 33% credited to government security strengths Remaining ascribed to neighborhood local armies, littler guerrilla gathers, some still unattributable (Human Rights Watch, 2003)

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Participants Approx. 120 secondary school understudies, 16-18 yrs. Normal Issues for Children Exposed to Traumatic Events Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Depression Anxiety Persistent Fearfulness (esp. at the point when presented to mass losses, e.g., 1983 slaughter in Ayacucho) Sleep unsettling influences Rigidity in routine Irritable/contentious Difficulty fixation Frequent disease Anxious Attachment American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1998; Comer and Kendall, 2007; Yule et al., 2002

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Peruvian American Medical Society (PAMS): Group of doctors and experts committed to helping Peru through multi-national community oriented wellbeing effort

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Participants Approximately 120 secondary school understudies Grades 11-12 Ages 16-18 (40-50 understudies for each classroom, 4 classrooms for study, 75% accepted acknowledgment rate) Majority anticipated that would have been conceived & brought up in Ayacucho Environmental stressors, traumatic occasions

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Timeline of Events March 2009: Measures given for pattern First 4 day composing session w/control and test bunches Measures given promptly taking after last session April 2009: Follow-up measures given Start of long haul (1 year) contemplate with LIWC

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Question & Answer

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