The Linguistics of Euphemism: .


53 views
Uploaded on:
Category: Education / Career
Description
The Linguistics of Euphemism:. A Diachronic Study of Sexual Euphemism Formation in Literature. For our Emma: My dearest Emma, for dearest you will always be […] my dearest most beloved Emma… Jane Austen, Emma (1816:325).
Transcripts
Slide 1

The Linguistics of Euphemism: A Diachronic Study of Sexual Euphemism Formation in Literature For our Emma: My dearest Emma, for dearest you will dependably be [… ] my dearest most adored Emma… Jane Austen, Emma (1816:325)

Slide 2

" in the first place was the word. There took after, at an undetermined however one accept conventional interim, private, cruel, and messy words. Development here being the mother of need, the requirement for code word emerged. No place could this need have been more prominent, or more apparent, than in the domain of sex ." Epstein, J. (1985) "Sex and doublespeak," in Enright, D. J. (Ed.) Fair of Speech: the employments of code word . Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.85.

Slide 3

exacerbating derivation i) Word development devices mixes acronyms onomatopoeia back slang Formal innovation rhyming slang ii) Phonemic phonemic modification replacement abbreviation Euphemisms iii) Loan words particularisation implication (iv) Semantic innovation metaphor metonym reversal understatement overstatement Figure 1: Classification of the principle gadgets for building doublespeaks (Warren, 1992a:133)

Slide 4

Word Formation Devices 1) Compounding: \'hand work\' [masturbation] 2) Derivation: "fellatio" [oral sex] 3) Blends: Warren gives no cases of what she implies by this term, or of how a mix is shaped. 4) Acronyms: SNAFU [\'Situation Normal All Fucked Up\'] 5) Onomatopoeia: "bonk" [sexual intercourse]

Slide 5

Phonemic Modification 1) Back slang: "enob" [bone/erect penis], Rawson (1981:88) and "epar" [rape] (Warren, 1992:133). 2) Rhyming slang: "Bristols" [breasts], an abbreviated, and further euphemised, adaptation of \'Bristol urban areas\' [titties] 3) Phonemic substitution: "shoot" [shit] 4) Abbreviation: "eff" (as in "eff off!") [fuck (off)].

Slide 6

Loan Words 1) French: "saying" [cunt]; "affair(e)" [extramarital engagement]; "underwear" [underwear] 2) Latin: "excrement" [excrement]; "rear-end" [asshole]. 3) Other dialects: Spanish: "cojones" [testicles]; Yiddish "schmuck" [penis] in Yiddish actually signifies "pendant"

Slide 7

Semantic Innovation 1) Particularisation: "fulfillment" [orgasm]; "honest" [virginal] 2)  Implication: \'free\', which infers \'unattached\', which prompts to the understanding [sexually simple/available] 3)  Metaphor: vivid figurative code words encompass feminine cycle: \'the mounted force has come\'- a reference to the red layers of the British rangers; \'red letter day\' and \'flying the warning\' 4) Metonym: maximally broad "it" [sex]; logically subordinate "thing" [male/female sexual organs, etc.]

Slide 8

Semantic Innovation, proceeded with… 5) Reversal: or \'incongruity\': "favored" [damned]; \'advantageous malady\' [syphilis] 6) Understatement: or \'litotes\': "rest" [die]; "deed" [act of murder/rape]; \'not brilliant\' [thick/stupid] 7) Overstatement: or \'metaphor\': \'battle to radiance\' [death], and those falling under Rawson\'s (1981:11) "fundamental run of administrations: the more drawn out the title, the lower the rank", e.g., \'visual designer\' [window cleaner] and \'Individual Assistant to the Secretary (Special Activities)\' [cook] (Rawson, on the same page.).

Slide 9

The Novels Austen, J. (1816) Emma . London: Penguin Group. Lawrence, D. H. (1928) Lady Chatterly\'s Lover . London: Penguin Group. Walker, F. (1996) Well Groomed . London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Slide 10

" It is a truth all around recognized that Jane Austen\'s books are about romance and marriage. In any case, it is a truth practically as all around disregarded that they are likewise especially about sex ." Chandler, A. (1975) "A couple of fine eyes: Jane Austen\'s treatment of sex". Examines in the novel , vol. 7/1, p. 88-103.

Slide 11

" What did she say? - Just what she should, obviously. A woman dependably does ."  Austen (1816:326) Table 1: The doublespeaks of Emma

Slide 12

" I need men and ladies to have the capacity to think sex, completely, totally, genuinely and neatly [… ] on the off chance that I utilize the unthinkable words, there is a reason. We might never free the phallic reality from the "inspire" pollute until we give it its own phallic dialect, and utilize the indecent words ." D. H. Lawrence, cited in McMaster, J. (1987) "Love: surface and subsurface," in Bloom, H. (Ed.) (1987) M odern Critical Interpretations: Emma . New York: Chelsea House Publishers, p. 52.

Slide 13

"[Lawrence] sets on a platform wanton intercourse, recognizes arousing quality practically as an ideals, and empowers and even supporters coarseness and obscenity of thought and dialect ." Lloyd Jones, L. what\'s more, Aynsley, J. (1985) Fifty Penguin Years . Harmondsworth: Penguin, p. 65. Table 2: The code words of Lady Chatterly\'s Lover

Slide 14

" In the second 50% of the present century [the twentieth] states of mind towards sexual conduct have changed extensively. The generative organs and their conjunctions have been stripped of indecency ." Burchfield, R. (1985) "A layout history of code words in English," in Enright, D. J. (Ed.) Fair of Speech: the employments of code word . Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 14.

Slide 15

" Sexual matters are less supported about with \'reasonable talked\' words than they once were ." Burchfield, R. (1985) "A framework history of code words in English," in Enright, D. J. (Ed.) Fair of Speech: the employments of code word . Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 29. Table 3: The code words of Well Groomed

Slide 16

… doublespeaks are society\'s essential lingua non franca [… ] By following them, it is conceivable to perceive what has been (and is) going ahead in our dialect, our brains, and our way of life . Rawson, H. (1981) A Dictionary of Euphemisms & Other Doubletalk . New York: Crown Publishers, p. 1. Table 4: The aggregate number of various code words from the three books

Slide 17

exacerbating derivation i) Word arrangement devices blends acronyms onomatopoeia back slang Formal innovation rhyming slang ii) Phonemic phonemic modification replacement abbreviation cancellation Euphemisms iii) Loan words particularisation implication (iv) Semantic innovation metaphor metonym reversal understatement overstatement formal people, places or things Naming geographic descriptive words Figure 2: Preliminary altered rendition of Warren\'s unique model (1992a:133)

Slide 18

intensifying derivation i) Word development devices acronyms onomatopoeia back slang Formal innovation rhyming slang ii) Phonemic phonemic modification replacement abbreviation deletion Euphemisms iii) Loan words particularisation implication (iv) Semantic innovation metaphor metonym reversal understatement overstatement proper things Naming geographic descriptors Figure 3: Final changed adaptation of Warren\'s (1992a:133) order display

Slide 19

If Bob Haldeman or John Ehrlichman or even Richard Nixon had said to me, "John, I need you to do a little wrongdoing for me. I need you to deter equity," I would have let him know he was insane and vanished from sight. Nobody pondered the Watergate conceal in those terms - at to start with, at any rate. Or maybe it was "containing" Watergate or keeping the respondents "on the reservation" or thinking of the correct advertising "situation" and so forth . John W. Dignitary III, a member in the Watergate undertaking, New York Times (April sixth, 1975).

Recommended
View more...