The Menu for Decision.


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Liberal states practice power legislative issues US interventionism. Radicalism overlooks
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The Menu for Choice Analyzing American Foreign Policy

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I. Models and Ideologies What\'s the distinction?

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I. Models and Ideologies What\'s the distinction?

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I. Models and Ideologies What\'s the distinction?

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I. Models and Ideologies What\'s the distinction?

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I. Models and Ideologies What\'s the distinction?

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B. Three regular models of worldwide relations

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B. Three basic models of global relations

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1. Case of Realism RISK Lord Palmerston: "His Majesty\'s Government has no perpetual companions, just lasting interests." Winston Churchill: "If Hitler attacked damnation, I would make no less than a great reference to the demon in the House of Commons."

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2. Protests to Realism States are not unitary performing artists – Realism overlooks impacts beneath the state level of examination (bureaucratic governmental issues, vested parties, general supposition, and so forth) Do states seek after the national interest? Realists are isolated between the individuals who say "they do" and the individuals who say "they ought to." Are all pioneers roused by what\'s best for their country? What is the national interest? Past survival, individuals oppose this idea.

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B. Three regular models of universal relations

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1. Case of Liberalism United Nations Cultural Exchanges Free-Trade Agreements Woodrow Wilson\'s Fourteen Points: "I. Open agreements of peace, straightforwardly arrived at.... II. Total flexibility of route upon the oceans… . III. The expulsion… .of every single financial boundary and the foundation of a correspondence of exchange conditions among every one of the countries… . IV. … . national combat hardware will be lessened to the most minimal point predictable with household wellbeing… . XIV. A general relationship of countries must be framed under … .common insurances of political autonomy and regional respectability to awesome and little states alike."

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2. Protests to Liberalism Liberal states hone power governmental issues – US interventionism Liberalism disregards "relative increases" concerns – commonly helpful arrangements will be rejected if pioneers trust that the opposite side will profit increasingly AND might one day be a foe

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B. Three normal models of worldwide relations

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1. Case of Radicalism Critique of Foreign Aid and Dependency: "From destitute individuals in rich nations to rich individuals in poor nations." Investors, Arms Dealers, and World War I Wealth Transfer Between Americans in the Iraq War: "No Blood for Oil"

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2. Reactions of Radicalism Difficult to clarify changes in remote strategy – class relations are pretty much static in entrepreneur nations, yet strategies aren\'t War is normally terrible for organizations other than arms merchants National solidarity typically more grounded than class solidarity  states really matter

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C. An essential model of remote strategy basic leadership: The Menu for Choice Key Actors = Leaders Goals = Stay in Office, Improve Policy, Personal Gain World System = Constraint on Leaders Menu Analogy a. A few things aren\'t on the menu (no open door ) b. A few things are on the menu however not alluring (no readiness ) c. Thing picked = favored, accessible dish (both happenstance and ability )

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5. Case: Saddam Hussein Menu Kick the US out and execute backstabbers who pondered surrender As above, however then attack the US to appropriate future assaults Surrender and go into outcast Delay US strengths while looking for an exit from the war

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5. Illustration: Saddam Hussein Menu Kick the US out and execute swindlers who contemplated surrender As above, however then attack the US to seize future assaults Surrender and go into outcast Delay US strengths while scanning for an exit from the war

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5. Illustration: Saddam Hussein Menu Kick the US out and execute deceivers who pondered surrender As above, however then attack the US to seize future assaults Surrender and go into outcast Delay US powers while looking for an exit from the war

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D. The Puzzle: How does a State Select From the Menu?

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II. Anticipating Opportunities A. Levels of Analysis: Higher levels control open doors System Region Dyad State Bureaucratic Group Individual

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B. What influences open doors? Framework: Power with respect to worldwide and territorial pioneers  need to comprehend what force is… Region: "Neighborhood impacts" of administration sort, exchange, and struggle Dyad: Trade and relative force State: Power projection ability, phase of advancement

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C. Bureaucratic imperatives: Models of basic leadership Puzzle: Why do nations once in a while settle on conflicting approach decisions? Answers:

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1. Authoritative Processes Central knowledge: "Where you stand relies on upon where you sit."

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Features of Organizational Processes Clienteles: serving vested parties behind association\'s projects Parochialism: focus on completing the office\'s employment (ignorant concerning exchange offs) Imperialism: growing office operations and going up against more duties

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Features of Organizational Processes Incrementalism: moderate usage of new projects Arbitrariness: utilization of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) (regularized systems) for productivity Satisficing: Choosing "adequate" as opposed to seeking after flawlessness

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Example: The Air Force and the open codes Air Force compelled to introduce locks (PALs) on atomic weapons amid 1960s. Buddies require mystery code to physically empower weapon. Regardless of the possibility that rocket propelled, warhead won\'t explode without code. Counteracts unapproved utilization of atomic weapons. Aviation based armed forces unobtrusively sets code to 00000000 – and enlightens simply regarding everybody required in the dispatch procedure! 1977: Congressional hearings lead Air Force to at long last pick another code

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2. Legislative Politics, otherwise known as Bureaucratic Politics

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Features of Bureaucratic Politics Individuals use casual energy to battle authoritative requirements: "Who you know… " decides "pull" Best indicator of bureaucratic choice is weighted middle "voter" among partners (bartering produces coalitions)

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Features of Bureaucratic Politics c. Acheson\'s Rule: An update is composed not to educate the peruser but rather to ensure the author

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d. 51-49 standard: Decisions have all the earmarks of being founded on arrogance (impetus to distort 51% assurance as 100% for bartering purposes)

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C. Bureaucratic requirements: Models of basic leadership

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Groupthink: Hierarchic gatherings strengthen similarity, produce poor choices

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III. Anticipating Willingness Selectorate Theory: Emphasizes the political motivating forces confronting pioneers. Equitable pioneers must keep individuals from a colossal winning coalition glad, so have a tendency to underscore strategies that advantage huge gatherings. Vested party Theory: Small, exceptionally composed gatherings apply more weight than extensive, inadequately sorted out gatherings, bending remote arrangement. Mental Models: Where pioneers have self-governance, their remote arrangements take after specific guidelines impossible to miss to their identity. Pioneers frequently fixate on one specific verifiable similarity.

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IV. Application to the United States Opportunity: Unusually high in light of monetary, military quality  constrains more often than not experienced where accord is important (i.e. influence or "delicate force") Dominance infers asymmetry: Most dangers will be from weaker states and associations

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3. What restrains the choices open to the American President? Potential for outfitted resistance: Major forces can resist US, and even minor forces with atomic weapons can dissuade furnished assaults Lack of "delicate force" or capacity to induce others that US interests are their own particular advantages Domestic elements: Organizational resistance, bureaucratic governmental issues, partisanship, general feeling

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B. What decides the President\'s eagerness? Top need to key open products: national security (at any rate opportunity from furnished assault) and monetary development Intelligence: must have precise evaluation of expenses and advantages (counting political ones) Need to protect coalition: Large alliances of voters must be persuaded that the President is superior to "the other person" Personality: Is there an approach to make expectations in view of this, or is it only an approach to cover our oversights?