The Nature and Control of Overabundance Warmth in Elctrolytic Icy Combination Cells.

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Substance The Nature and Control of Abundance Warmth in Elctrolytic Chilly Combination Cells Subside H. Handel Bureau of Material science and Cosmology and Community for Nanoscience, Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis, MO 63121, USA Presentation: Phenomenology of Overabundance Warmth Sorts of Electrolytic Cells Indicating Abundance Heat
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Substance The Nature and Control of Excess Heat in Elctrolytic Cold Fusion Cells Peter H. Handel Department of Physics & Astronomy and Center for Nanoscience, Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis, MO 63121, USA

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Introduction: Phenomenology of Excess Heat Types of Electrolytic Cells Showing Excess Heat Thermoelectrochemical, Thermoelectromechanical Effect In Electrons and Out Electrons Differ Literature Excess Heat Formula versus Experiment Discussion Conclusions CONTENTS

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as a rule, abundance warmth force is relative to the present Introduction Phenomenology of Excess Heat Some non-consistency because of exotermic and endotermic areas of stacking trademark and flee impacts Often the overabundance warmth is not watched; Why?

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Electrolytic Cell Thermo-electrochemical impact in a Pt/Pd cell: The work data UJ=∫ E ï‚\' H da and the warmth transport  J from the earth into the electrolytic cell. U is the connected voltage, J the current, and  =   -   a Peltier coefficient. Overabundance warmth is watched if no fenced in area is utilized, or if walled in area An is utilized. No overabundance warmth is watched when walled in area B is utilized, incorporating both the hot and chilly source. This assists us with comprehension why numerous research centers were not able to repeat the abundance heat. In Electrons and Out Electrons Differ

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Literature R.T. Schneider and P.H. Handel: "Neutron Emission by Plasma Cavitons", Fusion Technology 7 , 316-319 (1985). P.H. Handel and R.T. Schneider: "Nature of Resonances Leading to High-Pressure Cavitons", Fusion Technology 7 , 320-324 (1985).

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Literature R.T. Schneider and P.H. Handel: "Fusion Reactions in RF Plasma Cavitons", Proc. V Topical Conf. on RF Plasma Heating, Madison WI, Febr. 21-23, 1983, p.109-112 (Univ. of Wisconsin Press). P.H. Handel: "Intermittency, Irreproducibility and the Main Physical Effects in Cold Fusion". Combination Technology 18 , 512-517 (1990). 125. P.H. Handel: "Reformulation of the Cold Fusion Problem: Heterogeneous Nucleation - An imaginable Cause of the Irreproducibility and Intermittency of Cold Fusion Observations". I. Yearly Conf. on Cold Fusion, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 28-31, 1990.

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Literature P.H. Handel: "Subtraction of a New Thermo-Electrochemical Effect from the Excess Heat, and the Emerging Avenues to Cold Fusion", Proc. fourth Conf. on Cold Fusion, Maui, Hawaii, Dec. 1993, Electric Power Research Institute Press, 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304, EPRI TR-104188, (July 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 7-1 to 7-8.. P.H. Handel: "Thermoelectric Excess Heat Effect in Electrolytic Cells ” , Zeitschr. f ü r Physik B 95 , 489-492 (1994).

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Heat Charge and Current Density The vitality current thickness w and electric current thickness j in the terminals are given by w = (  - /e) j -  T; j =  -  S  T, where  ,  are the electrical and warm conduc-tivities, m the electrochemical potential,  the Peltier coefficient, S the Seebeck coefficient (thermopower) and e>0 the basic charge 5-7 .

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Types of Cells; Consensus Types of Electrolytic Cells Showing Excess Heat Open Cells: Thermoelectrochemical Effect Closed Cells: Thermoelectrochemical Effect Cells with Circulating Electrolyte: Thermoelectrochemical Effect & Thermo-Electromechanical Effect Theoretical models of the abundance warmth are no more experiencing the trouble of clarifying the biggest overabundance warmth watched tentatively Critics mocking the experimentalists who reported abundance warmth would do well to be searching for clarifying the wonder Understanding the overabundance warm accurately, brings together mainstream researchers once more

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Elementary Derivation of the Thermo-electrochemical Excess Heat Open Cells U= U 0 +TS + JR +  U ; U 0 =1.45 V  W = Jt(U-1.54V) = net work  U = U - J R - 1.54 V = Overpotential The Tafel law in the verifiable structure given by Erdey-Gruz and Volmer, See Zeitschr. Phys. Chem. 150 , 203 (1930): j= C{exp[- e  U/kT] - exp[(1- )e  U/kT]}  - Ce  U/kT   = W 1/Q 1 = S=S 1 - S 2  " =1/   - 1 =Q o/W 1 = = =(What arrives)/(what ought to be there) . Thermo-electrochemical Effect

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Discussion In the breaking point of little current densities (  U and JR insignificant), and little temperature contrasts T-T o , the abundance warmth division  " goes to interminability . e ’ reversible   for T  T 0 . Note that, disregarding the presence of the thermo-electrochemical impact presented in this paper, this vast overabundance heat per Coulomb of power transported could have been credited to atomic responses as a matter of course, the length of no different clarifications for its presence were accessible. Its total sum is again interminable when the measure of charge permitted to go through the cell goes to interminability. This is the suspect overabundance warmth portion on which mainstream researchers was centering, with a questionable, less goal, however extremely divisive impact.

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Discussion For the situation of shut cells the gasses discharged in electrolysis recombine chemically in the phone, and the work W=W 1 +U o Jt=UJt and additionally the warmth Q=Q 1 +U o Jt discharged into the calorimeter will now incorporate the comparing vitality of recombination U o Jt. Thusly, one is enticed to characterize shut cell thermo-electrochemical abundance warmth part as   = Q o/W=T o <S>/U= = =(What arrives)/(what ought to be there) . This expression stays limited even in the farthest point of little streams and temperature contrasts, in light of the fact that the “ what ought to arrive in the calorimeter ” term was expanded by definition by a limited sum, that is really recoverable, supplanting the more legitimate “ what ought to arrive well beyond the recoverable sum that ’ s accessible in the oxygen and hydrogen created by the cell ” . On the off chance that we recuperate the vitality of these gasses, e.g, in a power module, e ’ ends up being the genuine measure of the abundance heat, while e 2 is a fake measure.

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Discussion Indeed, one could input the vitality acquired from the gasses into the force plant supplying the approaching vitality UJt, which decreases the denominator of Eq. (7) for e 2 to the denominator of Eq. (6) and (6 ’ ) for e ’ . Note that e 2 is much littler than e ’ simply because U o is vast, which has nothing to do with the outright estimation of the "excess heat" Q o = T o <S>Jt, or with its relative quality e ’ , accurately assessed just in Eqs. (6) and (6 ’ ). The overabundance warmth portions are figured in Table I for three illustrations of cells at j = 100 mA/cm 2 . Table 1 Cell Electrodes T T o S 1 S 2 <S>   U+JR e ’ % o K o K  V/K  V/K  V/K mV mV I. 1)Pt ; 2)Pd 301 299 - 5.14 - 10.7 5.56 1.666 2.96 II. 1)Fe; 2)Ni 301 299 15 - 19.4 34.4 10.3 30 34.3 III. 1)Pt; 2)Ni 301 299 - 5.14 - 19.4 13.9 4.28 16 26.7 Table 1. : Thermo-electrochemical abundance heat for Pt/Pd, Fe/Ni and Pt/Ni cells.

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Discussion Comparing with the examinations, we take note of the similitude between the information for the 0.1x10 cm poles exhibited by Pons and Fleischmann 1 , and information one would anticipate from the thermo-electrochemical impact presented in this paper. In Table 2 underneath we list the present densities j, the deliberate overabundance heat percent e ’ , the relating cell voltages U suggested by the last, and the compelling Peltier coefficient  =T o <S>=(U-U o ) e ’/100 acquired from Eq. (6) above. Table 2 Current Density Excess Heat 1 Cell voltage Eff. Peltier Coefficient j e ’ U  =T o <S> mA/cm 2 % V mV . 8 23 3.22 390 64 19 3.65 390 512 5.5 8.9 400 Table 2. : Measured 1 estimations of the abundance heat percent and cell voltage for different current densities, demonstrate the vicinity of a steady viable  .

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Discussion An extensive increment of  may be because of the vicinity of debasements in the anode materials, for instance, hydrogen in Pd . Another wellspring of an expanded coefficient is the conceivable association of the Pt lead to a copper wire before it leaves the calorimeter together with the Pd lead. Copper has a positive Seebeck coefficient which yields a bigger contrast S=S 1 - S 2 . Direct estimation of the successful S and  is the best technique for representing the thermo-electrochemical impact. The proportionality of abundance force with the steady current connected to he cell is apparent in most if not all overabundance heat estimations to date. A sample is on page 15 of the last Cold Fusion Conference Proceedings 9 , which permits to characterize  = 150 mV/K. More research is expected to for all intents and purposes isolate the genuine combination heat, if present, in every past test.

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Conclusions Open Cells: Subtract Thermoelectrochemical Effect Closed Cells: Subtract Thermoelectrochemical Effect Cells with Circulating Electrolyte: Subtract Thermoelectrochemical Effect & Thermo-Electromechanical Effect Theoretical models of the abundance warmth are no more experiencing the trouble of clarifying the biggest overabundance warmth watched tentatively Critics scorning the experimentalists who reported overabundance warmth would be wise to be searching for clarifyin