The part of power transmission on supportable vitality advancements .

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The role of electricity transmission on sustainable energy technologies. Fernando L. Alvarado The University of Wisconsin Electric Energy Systems and Sustainability Workshop November 29 – December 1, 2000 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. The key questions.
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The part of power transmission on practical vitality innovations Fernando L. Alvarado The University of Wisconsin Electric Energy Systems and Sustainability Workshop November 29 – December 1, 2000 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia Sustainability Workshop November 2000

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The key inquiries Will we require transmission in 10 years? What about in 20? Also, what about in 40? What are the maintainable advances? What number of those are "electric"? What are their ecological impacts? Isn\'t circulated era about taking out the requirement for the network? How does rebuilding play into this? Arrangement and execution issues

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Fewer by-items Economically reasonable Compatible with ebb and flow frameworks Environmentally considerate Minimal by-items Economically feasible "Boundless" asset Diversified providers Acceptable zone utilize Environmentally manageable 10 year criteria 40 year criteria

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Jeff Dagle, PNNL Historical Basis for Transmission Renewable assets remote from load Hydroelectricity Thermal era economies of scale Reduced transportation ("coal by wire") Reliability (pooling of assets) Interregional trades (occasional, day by day)

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Nuclear Coal Hydro Photovoltaic Wind Biomass Geothermal Gas turbines/Fuel cells Spent fuel, wellbeing Emissions Environmental effect Cost, discontinuity Low thickness Very low thickness Limited destinations Needs hydrogen source The supportable innovations Technology Issues and concerns

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Nuclear Coal* Hydro Photovoltaic Wind Biomass Geothermal Gas turbines/Fuel cells * 3.5 sq. miles 7-14 sq. miles 28 sq. miles 40 sq. miles 100 sq. miles 1000 sq. miles 3 sq. miles It depends Area necessities by innovation Technology Requirements for 1000MWe *Sustainability is just in relative terms

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Biomass Geothermal Photovoltaic Wind Nuclear Gas turbine Coal Fuel cell Gas joined cycle Hybrid energy unit Hydro 0 20 40 60 80 100 (*) DER efficiencies enhance with warmth recuperation Technology efficiencies 1 8 10 25 33 38 43 50* 58* 66* 80

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Mike Corradini, UW CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS Construction/Operation/Fuel Preparation (kg CO/kWh) 2 1.4 1.18/kWh) 1.2 1.04 2 Natural Gas 1 0.8 0.79 Emissions (kg CO 0.58 Biomass/Steam 0.6 Geothermal Solar-PV Coal Nuclear 0.4 Wind 0.38 Hydro 2 CO 0.2 0.1 0.06 0.025 0.004 0.02 0

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Cost of Electricity (Global Average) (¢/kWh) Mike Corradini

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Transmission needs by innovation

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Jeff Dagle Distributed Generation (DER) Trends Smaller era nearer to the heap Natural gas, renewable Displaces some T&D Can be utilized to moderate limitations Provides reinforcement asset to the heap Potential for consolidated warmth and power Conventional turbines OR power modules

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DC Voltage Source with low emanations High fuel-to-electric productivity Low commotion No moving parts One stage era Jody Nelson What is a power device? 48 Vdc 7.5 kW Fuel Cell

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Jody Nelson An energy component framework For top productivity, you should utilize the warmth! At last, hydrogen is required!

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Jeff Dagle Need for a Grid with DER Historical variables still significant Economies of scale, asset area, unwavering quality improvement and asset sharing Large focal innovations entirely suitable Hydroelectric, coal, atomic DER will supplement as opposed to supplant the T&D matrix

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Features of DER Gen DER m lattice w/stack Network Fuel conveyance arrange Load DER wind sun powered m framework Isolated DER Loads Intermittent/irregular

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Jeff Dagle Grid Implications of DER can balance neighborhood sufficiency imperatives Grid security can be upgraded through appropriate outline and operation of DER Safety contemplations legitimately tended to Localized voltage bolster, steadiness upgrade Planning goes up against a radical new measurement Grid usage elements may diminish

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DER siting and estimating For remain solitary, measure for pinnacle request Both electrical and warm requests (Thermal essential for warmth recuperation frameworks) For greatest effectiveness, estimate for normal warm load use Either warm or electric will be undersized For dependability, give excess Using lattice to give repetition diminishes the use element of the network

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Jeff Dagle Nuclear Power Generation United States 104 working reactors 20% country\'s power era No new units requested or under development Worldwide 433 working reactors Some nations (e.g., France) vigorously subject to atomic power

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Mike Corradini Generation I Early Prototype Reactors Generation II Commercial Power Reactors Generation III Advanced LWRs Generation IV Highly practical Enhanced wellbeing Minimized squanders Proliferation resistance Shippingport Dresden,Fermi-I Magnox LWR: PWR/BWR CANDU VVER/RBMK System 80+ EPR AP600 ABWR Gen IV Gen I Gen II Gen III 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Evolution of Nuclear Power Systems

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Jeff Dagle Prospects for Nuclear Power New limit will be fundamentally in Asia Most new limit will be counterbalanced by resigning plants in the US and industrialized countries DOE Energy Information Administration ventures decrease in atomic era Yet trustworthy researchers see possible extension

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Safety concerns Recent occasions in Japan, S. Korea, China Competition in US power division Ownership combination Likely to bring about more proficient operations Fatigue breaking Recent French issue European Union talks At issue is the security of more established Soviet-style reactors Political developments Germany, Sweden, and so forth. (Green Party) Long-term atomic waste safe A major issue in the US and overall Jeff Dagle Key Issues for Nuclear Power

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Nuclear Power Plant Waste All atomic fuel cycle squander (aside from HLW) securely arranged: processing, enhancement, manufacture US characterizes High Level Waste as spent atomic fuel since no reprocessing has happened since 1976 (not so in France and Japan) Spent fuel at present at atomic power plants (~75,000 mt) to be put away at Yucca Mountain HLW radiation introduction at transfer site like normal foundation radiation Nuclear power burdened at 1mill/kwhre for a HLW support (~$500 million/yr, or >$15 billion)

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Future of Nuclear Power Waste transfer issue must be settled Reprocessing ought to be empowered Standardized (particular) outlines required Cost productive Smarter "safeguard" outline, lessens requirement for complex possibility and reinforcement assurance plans Fuel cycle issues (raiser reactor program) Price-aggressive with option sources

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Impact of deregulation of the network Deregulation changes framework usage Congestion estimating diminished some pinnacle streams Flow control (PAR, FACTS, DC) increment utilize Inter-local value contrasts are the consequence of lattice clog Nodal evaluating makes comes about unintuitive Nodal evaluating is effective (likewise flowgate valuing) Reliability has turned into a major concern Initial employments of DER prone to be for unwavering quality Strong hold markets must create

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Grid use in New York Transmission utilize seems, by all accounts, to be on the decay However, not generally so in different cases More "intra-territorial" issues surfacing Sustainability Workshop November 2000

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Policy and execution issues "Having the answer is insufficient" "The part of government is the disguise of externalities"

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"Having the answer is insufficient" Engineers surmise that once the answer is known, the issue is explained Individual premiums and covetousness meddle Political substances must be viewed as Human conduct must be considered in Some think the issue is lawmakers absence of comprehension I keep up that it is specialists absence of comprehension of the whole basic leadership cycle

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"Disguise of externalities" It is independently proficient to disregard externalities Emissions Resource consumption (maintainability) Role of strategy: set up the tenets Example: car air emanations Example: control plant discharge limitations Industry is understanding that what is useful for society is useful for industry "We as a whole need to do it"

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"When I was more youthful, I used to imagine that administration was the adversary of industry. I used to imagine that spotless air directions would execute the vehicle and the power business. Having become more seasoned and more shrewd, I now perceive the huge esteem to society of past clean air strategies. I now trust that what is useful for society is very for enterprises" (Mike Gent reworded, IEEE EPC, July 2000) "The part of policymakers is to lineup the interests of society with individual insatiability and afterward step back and watch" (yours really, November 2000)

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Conclusions: eventual fate of the T&D matrix Traditional explanations behind the network still here Pooling assets, interregional trades, and so on. Indeed, even skeptical situations indicate atomic creation past 2020 Central era and renewable (hydro) key to the country\'s power portfolio Intermittency of renewables is an issue Technology hybridization may help (Tatro) New monetary examination required Transmission administration is vital to rivalry Externalities must be disguised

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