The Science of Transgenics The Sociological, Economic, and Ethical Impact of Transgenic Organisms Workshop Fargo, ND February 21, 2003 Phil McClean Department of Plant Science North Dakota State UniversitySlide 2
Transgenics are a Biotechnology Product How about a few definitions Biotechnology - General Definition The use of innovation to enhance a natural living being Biotechnology - Detailed Definition The use of the innovation to enhance the organic capacity of a life form by including qualities from another creaturesSlide 3
What About the Term Genetic Engineering? Hereditary building is the fundamental apparatus set of biotechnology Genetic designing includes: Isolating qualities Modifying qualities so they work better Preparing qualities to be embedded into another species Developing transgenesSlide 4
What is a transgenic ? Idea Based on the Term Transgene – the hereditarily designed quality added to an animal groups Ex . – changed EPSP synthase quality (encodes a protein that capacities notwithstanding when plant is treated with Roundup) Transgenic – a creature containing a transgene presented by mechanical (not reproducing) techniques Ex . – Roundup Ready CropsSlide 5
Why are transgenics essential ? We can create life forms that express a "novel" characteristic not typically found in the species Extended timeframe of realistic usability tomato (Flavr-Savr) Herbicide safe soybean (Roundup Ready)Slide 6
Agriculture Transgenics On the Market Insect safe cotton – Bt poison kills the cotton boll worm transgene = Bt protein Source: USDA Insect safe corn – Bt poison kills the European corn borer transgene = Bt protein Normal TransgenicSlide 7
Herbicide safe harvests Now : soybean, corn, canola Coming : sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry horse feed, potato, wheat (2005?) transgene = adjusted EPSP synthase or phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase Source: Monsanto Virus resistance - papya impervious to papaya ringspot infection transgene = infection coat proteinSlide 8
Biotech chymosin; the chemical used to turn sour drain items transgene = hereditarily designed compound Source: Chr. Hansen bST ; bovin somatotropin; used to build drain creation transgene = hereditarily designed compound Source: Rent Mother NatureSlide 9
Some Ag Biotech Products Are Discontinued Why??? Low quality FlavrSavr tomatoes (Calgene) Negative Consumer Response Tomato glue (Zeneca) Negative Corporate Response NewLeaf (Monsanto) Universal Negative Publicity StarLink corn (Aventis)Slide 10
Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products Golden Rice – expanded Vitamin A substance (yet not without debate) transgene = three pathway catalysts Sunflower – white form resistance transgene = oxalate oxidase from wheat Source: Minnesota Microscopy SocietySlide 11
Turfgrass – herbicide resistance; slower developing (= decreased cutting) Bio Steel – arachnid silk communicated in goats; used to make delicate body shot proof vests (Nexia)Slide 12
Biotechnology is Not Just on the Farm Disease Treatment Diagnostics Environmental Cleanup Human ApplicationsSlide 13
Human Applications Pharmaceutical items New answers for old issues Disease finding Determine what illness you have or may get Gene treatment Correcting ailment by presenting a restorative qualitySlide 14
Biotechnology and Health The qualities for these proteins are: Cloned Inserted into microorganisms Product separated utilizing biofermentationSlide 15
Environmental Applications Bioremediation - cleanup debased destinations; utilizes microorganisms intended to corrupt the contamination Indicator microbes – pollution can be recognized in the earthSlide 16
Future Health-related Biotech Products Vaccines – herpes, hepatitis C, AIDS, intestinal sickness Tooth rot – built Streptococcus mutans, the microscopic organisms that demolishes polishSlide 17
Edible Vaccines Transgenic Plants Serving Human Health Needs Works like any immunization A transgenic plant with a pathogen protein quality is created Potato, banana, and tomato are targets Humans eat the plant The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein Humans are "inoculated" against the pathogen Examples: Diarrhea Hepatitis B MeaslesSlide 18
A Popular Term We Need To Know GMOs - Genetically adjusted creatures GMO - a living being that communicates attributes that outcome from the presentation of remote DNA Originally a term identical to transgenic living beingSlide 19
The GMO Ruse Some claim any enhanced natural item is a GMO They feel this will facilitate the publics fear make ready for item acknowledgment For instance, some call plant assortments biotechnology items This is a false claimSlide 20
Let\'s Be Up Front Biotechnology includes characteristics not accessible in the species Soybean does not have a quality to breakdown Roundup The quality originates from microscopic organisms Breeding Biotechnology Breeding just trades qualities found in the species Breeding can exchange the transgene to other rearing materials BUT this does not make it a biotechnology systemSlide 21
Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding Crossing two people from similar species; delivers another, enhanced assortment; not a biotechnology methodology Source: USDA Transformation Adding a quality from another animal types; the basic biotechnology strategy to create transgenics Source: USDASlide 22
Interspecific Cross Wheat Rye X Triticale New species, yet NOT biotechnology itemsSlide 23
Mutagenesis A valuable technique to deliver another characteristic But the typical quality is altered A transgene is not included The result of mutagenesis is not a GMOSlide 24
Mutagenesis Changes the DNA Sequence Mutagenesis Treatment Susceptible Normal Gene ATTCGA Resistant Mutant Gene ATT G GASlide 25
BASF Clearfield Products Herbicide resistance imidazolinones Mutant AHAS chemical created by mutagenesis Crops Canola Corn Rice Sunflower Wheat A Major Marketing Advantage but lost when stacked with a transgeneSlide 26
The Roundup Ready Story Glyphosate is a wide range herbicide Active fixing in Roundup herbicide Kills all plants it interact with Inhibits a key compound ( EPSP synthase ) in an amino corrosive pathway Plants bite the dust since they do not have the key amino acids A safe EPSP synthase quality permits yields to survive splashingSlide 27
Shikimic corrosive + Phosphoenol pyruvate Plant EPSP synthase 3-Enolpyruvyl shikimic corrosive 5-phosphate (EPSP) Aromatic amino acids Roundup Sensitive Plants + Glyphosate X Without amino acids, plant kicks the bucket XSlide 28
Roundup Resistant Plants Shikimic corrosive + Phosphoenol pyruvate + Glyphosate RoundUp has no impact; chemical is impervious to herbicide Bacterial EPSP synthase 3-enolpyruvyl shikimic corrosive 5-phosphate (EPSP) With amino acids, plant lives Aromatic amino acidsSlide 29
The Golden Rice Story Vitamin An inadequacy is a noteworthy medical issue Causes visual impairment Influences seriousness of looseness of the bowels, measles >100 million kids experience the ill effects of the issue For some nations, the foundation doesn\'t exist to convey vitamin pills Improved vitamin A substance in broadly expended crops an alluring optionSlide 30
IPP Geranylgeranyl diphosphate Phytoene synthase Phytoene Problem: Rice does not have these chemicals Phytoene desaturase ξ-carotene desaturase Lycopene-beta-cyclase Normal Vitamin A "Lacking" Rice - carotene (vitamin A forerunner) - Carotene Pathway Problem in PlantsSlide 31
IPP Geranylgeranyl diphosphate Phytoene synthase Phytoene Vitamin A Pathway is finished and practical Phytoene desaturase ξ-carotene desaturase Lycopene-beta-cyclase - carotene (vitamin An antecedent) Golden Rice The Golden Rice Solution -Carotene Pathway Genes Added Daffodil quality Single bacterial quality; performs both capacities Daffodil qualitySlide 32
Introducing the Gene or Developing Transgenics Steps 1. Make change tape 2. Present and select for transformantsSlide 33
1. Quality of intrigue The coding locale and its controlling components 2. Selectable marker Distinguishes changed/untransformed plants 3. Inclusion arrangements Aids Agrobacterium addition Transformation Cassettes ContainsSlide 34
Tissue must be fit for forming into typical plants Leaf, sprouting seed, youthful incipient organisms Develop shoots Root the shoots Transformation Steps Prepare tissue for change Introduce DNA Agrobacterium or quality weapon Culture plant tissue Field test the plants Multiple destinations, various yearsSlide 35
Agrobacterium Tissue culture required to create transgenic plants Gene Gun Delivering the Gene to the Plant Transformation tapes are produced in the lab They are then brought into a plant Two noteworthy conveyance strategiesSlide 36
The Lab StepsSlide 37
Non Transgenics The Next Test Is The Field Herbicide ResistanceSlide 38
Before After Final Test of the Transgenic Consumer Acceptance RoundUp Ready Corn
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