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The Size of the Universe Address 2 Forces OF 10 and Experimental Documentation In science and particularly in space science, you need to manage expansive numbers and little numbers. For instance, the quantity of kilometers in a light year is

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The Cosmos\' Scale Lecture 2

POWERS OF 10 & SCIENTIFIC NOTATION In science and particularly in stargazing, you need to manage expansive numbers and little numbers. For instance, the quantity of kilometers in a light year is pretty nearly 9,500,000,000,000 (9.5 trillion). The hydrogen\'s breadth iota is 0.000000013 centimeters (13 billionths).

To oversee expansive numbers and little numbers, experts make utilization of forces of 10 and exploratory documentation . 10,000,000,000 (10 billion) years is the surmised age of the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG). Rather than working out the huge number in extended structure (i.e., 10,000,000,000) it is composed as a force of 10â¦10 10 ). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10,000,000,000. 10 The quantity of spot qualities to move the decimal behind the 1.

The measurement of the MWG is give or take 100,000 (100 thousand) light years. 5 4 3 2 1 100,000. 10 5 The quantity of stars in the MWG is pretty nearly 100,000,000,000 (100 billion). 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 100,000,000,000. 10 11

Large numbers have a positive type when composed as a force of 10. Little numbers have a negative example when composed as a force of 10. Consider the little number 0.000000001 (1 billionth): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.000000001 10 - 9 The quantity of spot qualities to move the decimal behind the 1.

Positive Exponents Negative Exponents 10 0 = One 10 1 = Ten 10 2 = One Hundred 10 3 = One Thousand 10 4 = Ten Thousand 10 5 = One Hundred Thousand 10 6 = One Million 10 7 = Ten Million 10 8 = One Hundred Million 10 9 = One Billion 10 = Ten Billion 10 11 = One Hundred Billion 10 12 = One Trillion 10 0 = One 10 - 1 = One Tenth 10 - 2 = One Hundredth 10 - 3 = One Thousandth 10 - 4 = Ten Thousandth 10 - 5 = One Hundred Thousandth 10 - 6 = One Millionth 10 - 7 = Ten Millionth 10 - 8 = One Hundred Millionth 10 - 9 = One Billionth 10 - 10 = Ten Billionth 10 - 11 = One Hundred Billionth 10 - 12 = One Trillionth

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION A number is put into logical documentation in the event that it is in the structure d x 10 n (huge number) or d x 10 - n (little number) where d is a decimal somewhere around 1 and 10 (i.e., 1 â¤ d < 10). The separation to the Sun speaks the truth 150,000,000 km 150,000,000 = 1.5 x 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 150,000,000. 1.5 x 10 8

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 38,000,000,000. 3.8 x 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.000000478 4.78 x 10 - 7 1 2 3 4 5 0.000031 3.1 x 10 - 5

To duplicate or partition forces of ten you: Add the examples when you increase Subtract the types when you separate 10 3 * 10 4 = 10 3+4 = 10 7 10 5 * 10 7 = 10 5+7 = 10 12 10 12 = 10 12-3 = 10 9 10 3 10 8 = 10 8-5 = 10 3 10 5

ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION (2.1 x 10 3 ) . (1.5 x 10 6 ) = (2.1 . 1.5) x (10 3 . 10 6 ) = 3.15 x 10 9 Multiply the Decimals Add the Exponents 7.2 x 10 17 = 7.2 x 10 17 = 2.4 x 10 7 3 x 10 3 10 Divide the Decimals Subtract the Exponents

When it goes to the math of numbers in logical documentation, let your fingers do the walkingâ¦USE YOUR CALCULATOR. Your adding machine will handle the decimal\'s majority computations and the option/subtraction of the types. You should simply to set your adding machine to investigative documentation mode then key in the numbers in the number-crunching issue. Note â DO NOT enter a number as â3â âxâ â10â â^4â, it will treat the â3â and the â10^4â as independent numbers. Utilize the âexpâ or âEEâ catch (for âexponentâ) as in â3â âEEâ â4â. (Regularly written in shorthand structure as 3e4).

SAMPLE PROBLEMS Light goes at the pace of c = 300,000 km/s. The separation from Earth to the Sun is 150,000,000 km. To what extent does it take light go from the Sun to Earth? Separation = Speed . Time Speed = Distance Time = Distance Speed Time = Distance = 150,000,000 km Speed 300,000 km/s Time = 500 seconds 500 s . 1 min/60 s = 8.3 minutes The Earth is 8.3 light-minutes from the Sun.

The metric framework rather than the British arrangement of units is utilized as a part of science. There are two forms of the metric framework: MKS = M eters (m) K ilograms (kg) S econds (s) CGS = C entimeters (cm) G rams (g) S econds (s) It is standard to utilize CGS in stellar space science and MKS in alternate branches of cosmology. We will be utilizing the MKS arrangement of units. The meter is the unit of separation in the MKS framework. It is more or less one yard long (39.3 inches). The kilogram is the unit of mass (weight). It is give or take two pounds of weight at Earthâs surface.

Scales of Size and Time Astronomy manages objects on an immeasurable scope of size scales and time scales. The vast majority of these size and time scales are way past our consistently encounter. People, the Earth, and even the close planetary system are modest and immaterial on vast scales.

A Campus Scene 16 x 16 m (52 x 52 ft)

A City View 1.6 x 1.6 km (1 x 1 mile)

The Landscape of Pennsylvania 160 x 160 km (100 x 100 miles)

The Earth Diameter of the Earth: 12,756 km

Earth and Moon Distance Earth â Moon: 384,000 km

No climate. Measurement: 3500 km Sidereal Period: 27.3 days Synodic Period: 29.5 days Distance from Earth: 385,000 km Maria â Younger Surface 3 billion years of age Highlands â Older Surface 4.5 billion years of age EARTHâS MOON

Earth Orbiting Around the Sun Distance Sun â Earth = 150,000,000 km

Earth Orbiting Around the Sun keeping in mind the end goal to stay away from expansive numbers past our creative energy, we present new units: 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) = Distance Sun â Earth = 150 million km (93 million miles)

SUN Sunspots (Magnetic Storms) Solar Flares & Prominences Boiling Earth-Sized Convection Cells Diameter: 1,400,000 km Rotation Period: 25 days Surface Temperature: 5,800 K Core Temperature: 15,000,000 K

The Solar System Approx. 100 AU

MERCURY With no environment, Mercury is vigorously cratered by 4.5 billion years of meteoritic effects. Closest the Sun of the considerable number of planets. 60,000,000 km (0.4 AU) Diameter: 5000 km Orbital Period: 88 days Rotational Period: 58 days Although very little greater than Earthâs Moon it is much denser, 5.5 times that of water contrasted with the Moonâs 3.5 times.

Thick environment of carbon dioxide and sulfuric corrosive. Venus has a hot thick air. It is thick to the point that optical-based telescopes can\'t enter to the surface. Closer to the Sun than Earth, the temperature at the surface is a rankling 800 o F. Measurement: 12,100 km (just about a match for Earth) Orbital Period: 225 days Rotational Period: 243 days (retrograde) Distance from Sun: 110,000,000 km (0.7 AU) Soviet Venra Spacecraft photo of the surface of Venus.

MARS Diameter: 6800 km Orbital Period: 1.88 years Rotational Period: 24 h Distance from Sun: 225,000,000 km (1.5 AU) Gigantic crevasse in the surface of Mars (Valles Marinaris) extending 3000 km over. It would reach over the whole mainland United States. Polar Cap Dry Ice & Water Ice Thin climate of carbon dioxide and water.

ASTEROID BELT Gaspra Ida The Asteroid Belt is situated somewhere around 2 and 4 AU from the Sun. It contains billions of rock stones. The two at the right are 20-60 km in size. Dactyl

JUPITER Atmospheric cloud groups because of high winds. Broad climate of methane and smelling salts. Width: 143,000 km Orbital Period: 12 years Rotational Period: 10 h Distance from Sun: 680,000,000 km (5 AU) Great Red Spot Jupiter is the biggest of the planets in the nearby planetary group. It is sufficiently expansive to fit the majority of alternate planets within itâ¦twice! It can without much of a stretch immerse more than 1000 Earths. It has a broad climate a huge number of kilometers thick. It is accept to have been the first planet to frame in the close planetary system, 100 million years after the Sun shaped from a substantial billow of gas and dust in the rotational plane of the Milky Way Galaxy.

vast sea encrusted in ice Most volcanically-dynamic item In the close planetary system THE GALILEAN SATELLITES This composite incorporates the four biggest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. From left to right, the moons demonstrated are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian space expert Galileo Galilei in 1610. All together of expanding separation from Jupiter, Io is nearest, trailed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

SATURN Diameter: 121,000 km Orbital Period: 29 years Rotational Period: 10 h 30 m Distance from Sun: 1,400,000,000 km (9.5 AU) Extensive arrangement of rings

Atmospheric mists URANUS NEPTUNE Diameter: 50,000 km Orbital Period: 164 years Rotational Period: 15 h Distance from Sun: 4,500,000,000 km (30 AU) Diameter: 51,000 km Orbital Period: 84 years Rotational Period: 15 h Distance from Sun: 2,900,000,000 km (19 AU)

OORT CLOUD & KUIPER BELT Diagram of the Oort cloud, demonstrating a couple of cometary circles. Most Oort cloud comets never approach the Sun. Of the considerable number of circles appeared, just th