The Sun.

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In the process Electromagnetic Energy (Visible light, UV light, X-beams, Gamma beams) is ... Aurora Borealis Aurora Borealis (brought about by exorbitant measure of charged ...
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The Sun

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1. Indispensable Statistics: A. Width – 865,000 miles B. Shading – Yellow C. Clear Magnitude - 26.5 D. Supreme Magnitude - +4.7 E. Time of Rotation – About 35 days at the shafts and 25 days at the equator F. Thickness – 1.41 G/cm3 (About the Same as the Gas Planets) G. Mass – Earth = 1 , Sun = 332,000 H. Surface Gravity – 275 m/second 2 I. Escape Speed – 618 km/second J. Surface Temperature – 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit sufficiently hot to liquefy any known substance K. Organization - 76 % Hydrogen, 22% Helium, and About 2 % overwhelming components (Very like Gas Giants)

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Jupiter Earth 3

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2. Sun\'s Energy - A. Suns\' Energy is created by Nuclear Fusion -Nuclear Fusion is the point at which the Atoms lighter components join to frame new heavier Elements. - In the process Electromagnetic Energy (Visible light, UV light, X-beams, Gamma beams) is discharged . - On Earth, fire additionally produces heat and other electromagnetic vitality however fire includes the electrons of particles just and happens under moderately cool conditions. - In the Sun\'s center the weight and temperature are high to the point that it makes hydrogen atoms move at 300 miles for every second. At this pace when they hit each other, they intertwine. - In the center of the Sun, Hydrogen is being intertwined to make Helium This Process is called Hydrogen "Blazing" So Where does the Energy originate from?

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2. Sun\'s Energy (cont.) -Hydrogen has a nuclear Mass of 1.0079 -Helium (Takes 4 Hydrogen\'s to make a Helium) has a nuclear mass of 4.00260 -However 1.0079 X 4 approaches 4.0316 ???? - Einstein\' Law of protection of Mass and Energy expresses that neither Mass nor Energy can be made or demolished… .It just changes structure. In this way the distinction in the mass more likely than not get to be vitality E=MC2 since there are a great deal of hydrogen iotas and the pace of light is so extensive… .even small measures of mass turn out to be LOTS of Energy Every second the sun delivers the equal measure of vitality made by 100 billion one megaton bombs * Six seconds of direct sun powered vitality would dissipate all the Earth\'s seas * Three minutes would liquefy the Earth\'s outside layer

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Hydrogen Fusion (How our Sun makes Energy)

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3. Sun\'s structure-A. Hydrostatic Equilibrium - Balance between the strengths holding the Sun together (Gravity) and the Forces attempting to tear the Sun Apart (Nuclear Fusion Explosions) B. Center - The deepest 10% of the Sun -Nuclear Fusion happens in this layer - Temperature of around 27 million degrees F and around 20 times denser than iron. (However still a gas because of great temps)

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3. Sun\'s structure (cont.) C. Radiative Zone - -85% of the inside mass of the Sun -Energy is transported by Radiation ( in vitality waves) from the super hot inside to the cooler outside . (This is the place gamma waves change to unmistakable light beams. Takes around a million years for a solitary photon to achieve the surface from the center) D. Convection Zone - -Outer 15 % of the Suns\' Radius -Energy is transported by mass movements of gas called Convection -Convection causes more smoking zones of gas to ascend to the surface and cooler territories to sink down into lower layers.

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3. Sun\'s structure(cont.) E. Photosphere - The unmistakable "surface" of the Sun -The layer at which the thickness of gas gets to be sufficiently obvious for us to see – Very tight layer - "Edge" of the Sun is so sharp on account of the brisk move from perceivability of gasses to straightforwardness of sun based air. - Atoms in this layer are always engrossing radiation from the hot inside. - Sunspots, Solar Flares, and Solar Prominences are shaped in this layer (We will return to these in a bit)

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Sunspots 16

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3. Sun\'s structure - F. Sun based Atmosphere - Extremely low thickness gasses that lie over the photosphere, comprises of two fundamental districts : 1. Chromosphere- -Pink gleaming district of gas simply over the photosphere -Temperature of around 20,000 degrees F (Hot) -Can be seen by the bare eye just amid a sun oriented obscuration -Spicules-spikes of shining gas most likely because of attractive changes 2. Crown – - Above Chromosphere – Temperature of around 3 million F -Layer of greatly hot ionized shining straightforward gas (Heat thought to originate from Interactions amongst gas and Magnetic Field – But not certain) -Only unmistakable amid an overshadowing or by review through a coronagraph (Machine that falsely obscures the Sun) because of transparency of gas.

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3. Sun\'s structure-G. Sun oriented Wind : - Because of high temps its own particular particles are really ready to get away from the Sun\'s gravity. - The mass lost is known as the Solar Wind and comprises for the most part of electrons and particles of hydrogen and helium. - Heliopause - Outer Boundary of the Solar Wind at a separation of around 50 AU (5 Billion Miles) from the sun

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Suns\' Chromosphere 19

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Spicules 20

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Sun\'s Photosphere encompassed by Corona

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Sun\'s Corona as seen through an Eclipse 22

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Very Active Corona-Photo taken amid 1991 July Eclipse

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Coronal Mass Ejections - because of high temps of crown, a lot of sunlight based material break into space. Photograph brought with a coronagraph

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4. Sun\'s Important Features A. Sunspots - an attractively irritated locale of the photosphere that is cooler than its environment. - Appears dim simply because its gasses are a couple of thousand degrees cooler than encompass gas… .so it emanates less vitality. - May show up as single sunspots or in gatherings - There is by all accounts around a 11 year cycle from sunlight based least to most extreme back to least 1. Cause - -because of differential turn of Sun, the Magnetosphere now and then creates curls and in the long run crimps, which significantly increment the quality of the field. - The solid attractive field most likely hinders convection and accordingly keeps warmed gas from ascending to the surface. - Eventually field crumples and resets itself to begin another cycle

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Sunspot with Umbra at Center, encompassed by Penumbra 27

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Sunspot Cycle in the course of the Last 150 Years

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Low Sunspot Activity which Coincided with Unusually cool Climate on Earth

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Process of Sunspot Formation – Differential Spin rate of Sun causes the attractive field to loop . In the end wraps loops so tight that they wrinkle and infiltrate the photosphere .

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How Sunspots structure

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Magnetic Field upsets convection streams and keeps hot gasses from ascending into photosphere 34

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Sunspots Always appear to happen in sets. Plausible because of how the crimps in Magnetic field enter the photosphere

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4. Sun\'s Important Features (cont.) B. Sun oriented Prominences- -Huge tufts of sparkling gas that emit from aggravated districts of sunspots. They can be seen on the edge of the sun.

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Solar Prominence as saw from the edge of the Sun 38

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Unusually Large Solar Prominence as saw by SOHO rocket in 1999

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4. Sun\'s Important Features (cont.) C. Sun powered Flares - Gigantic Outbursts of Charged particles and in addition Visible, UV, and X-beams made when to a great degree hot gas that spouts upward from the surface of the sun. - Usually connected with sunspots -Probably brought about when the attractive field abruptly rearranges itself -As charged particles go into Earth\'s Magnetosphere they make Auroras. (Northern and Southern lights)

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Solar Flare

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Solar Flare 43

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Northern Lights – Aurora Borealis (created by over the top measure of charged particles hitting Earth\'s Magnetosphere and energizing the gasses found there 25

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