The UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 7 Tyke destitution in context: A Diagram of Youngster Prosperity in Rich Nations.


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Jonathan Bradshaw The UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 7 Youngster neediness in context: A Diagram of Tyke Prosperity in Rich Nations Worldwide Society for Tyke Pointers Inaugural Gathering June 26-28 2007 Allerton Lodging, Chicago, USA Foundation
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Slide 1

Jonathan Bradshaw The UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 7 Child destitution in context: An Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries International Society for Child Indicators Inaugural Conference June 26-28 2007 Allerton Hotel, Chicago, USA

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Background UNICEF Innocenti Center has been distributed Report Cards subsequent to 2000 League Tables of rich (OECD) countries 1 and 6 on salary neediness 2 on youngster passings 3 on high school births 4 on instructive imbalance 5 on misuse and disregard Latest 7 on tyke prosperity “to energize checking, to allow examination and to animate the discourse and advancement of arrangements to enhance children’s lives.”

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Child destitution in context EU, OECD, LIS (and UNICEF) have most normally looked at kid prosperity utilizing relative wage measures. Imperfect Income is not prosperity Income information inconsistent Income neediness edges discretionary and Level of living distinctive Equivalence scales challenged Income destitution rates shroud holes and ingenuity. RP 7 an endeavor to move past salary – to place it into viewpoint

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We can look at inputs for kids OECD examinations of welfare state exertion – social consumption on families with youngsters

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Public spending on family advantages in real money, administrations and expense measures Percentage of GDP, in 2003 Cash Services Tax breaks Average aggregate (2.4%) 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Spain Japan Korea France Ireland Iceland Austria Canada Finland Mexico Sweden Norway Belgium Australia Denmark Germany Netherlands New Zealand United States Czech Republic United Kingdom

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Child neediness rate (around 2000) by family exp. as % GDP 2003 (OECD information)

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Background: We can think about inputs OECD correlations of welfare state exertion – social use on families with youngsters Child assessment/advantage bundles

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“Average” tyke advantage bundle in Euros acquiring force equalities. Jan 2004

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Background: OECD examinations of welfare state exertion – social consumption on families with youngsters Child duty/advantage bundles Better to have information on results – prosperity

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Background Luxembourg Presidency: Atkinson suggests “child mainstreaming” and improvement of kid prosperity pointers for EU. We create of a list of youngster prosperity taking into account existing similar information hotspots for EU ( Bradshaw, J., Hoelscher, P. also, Richardson, D. (2007) A list of youngster prosperity in the European Union 25, Journal of Social Indicators Research , 80, 133-177.) UNICEF approaches us to adjust it for Innocenti Report Card 7 Now taking a shot at Index for CEE/CIS nations for UNICEF: Geneva

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Conceptualisation of kid prosperity Multi-dimensional methodology Based on children’s rights as sketched out in the UN CRC Drawing on national and multi-national encounters in pointer improvement

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Data Sources I: Surveys Health Behavior of School Aged Children (HBSC) 36 nations at 2001 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 32 nations at 2000, 41 at 2003

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Data Sources II: Series WHO mortality information base 1993-1999, all nations aside from DK & CY World Bank World Development Indicators 2003, all nations OECD (2004) Education at a Glance, 2002 information Other OECD sources World Bank (2002) Health, Nutrition and Population Data

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Structure 40 markers composed into 19 parts making 6 measurements Material Health and wellbeing Education Peer and family connections Behaviors and dangers Subjective prosperity

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Overall tyke prosperity

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Overall kid prosperity all nations

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Child prosperity by kid destitution r=0.75

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Material Relative tyke pay neediness OECD Child hardship Lacking auto, own room, occasions a year ago, a PC HBSC Lacking a work area, calm for study, a PC, adding machine, lexicon, course readings PISA Less than ten books in the home PISA Parental worklessness OECD

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Health during childbirth Infant death rates (WDI 2003) Low conception weight (OECD Health Data) Immunization Measles WDI (2003) DPT3 WDI HNP (2002) Pol3 WDI HNP (2002) Child mortality All kid passings: All under 19 passings for each 100,000 kids, WHO mortality database, 3 year midpoints, MRD

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Behaviors and Risks Health conduct Eating natural product consistently (HBSC) Eating breakfast before school (HBSC) Physical action (HBSC) Obesity and pre corpulence (HBSC) Experience of savagery Young individuals who were included in physical battling at any rate once in the past 12 months 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Young individuals who were harassed at any rate once in the past couple of months 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Risk conduct Teenage pregnancy (youthful ripeness rate), juvenile richness rate, births per 1000 ladies 15-19 - WDI, 2003. Youngsters who have had sex, 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Young individuals who utilized a condom amid their last sex, 15-year-olds (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Cigarette smoking in any event once every week HBSC 2001 Drunk two or more times HBSC 2001 Cannabis utilized as a part of the most recent 12 months HBSC 2001

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Child prosperity and high school ripeness rate r = 0.82***

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Subjective Well-being Personal prosperity Young individuals with scores over the center of an existence fulfillment scale 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Students who concur or emphatically consent to \'I feel like an untouchable (or let alone for things)\', 15 years (%) - PISA 2003 Students who concur or unequivocally consent to \'I get a handle on clumsy and of spot\', 15 years (%) - PISA 2003 Students who concur or firmly consent to \'I feel forlorn\', 15 years (%) - PISA 2003 Well-being at school Young individuals preferring school a considerable measure 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Self characterized wellbeing Young individuals rating their wellbeing as reasonable or poor 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02

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Peer and family connections Quality of family relations Students whose folks eat the primary feast with them around a table a few times each week, 15 years (%) - PISA 2000 Students whose folks invest energy simply conversing with them a few times each week, 15 years (%) - PISA 2000 Family structure Young individuals living in \'single guardian\' family structures 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Young individuals living in "Stepfamily" family structures 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02 Peer connections Young individuals discovering their companions kind and accommodating 11, 13 and 15 years (%) - HBSC 2001/02

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Overall kid prosperity and % of youngsters saying they lived in a solitary parent family

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Education Achievement Reading proficiency accomplishment, 15 years - PISA, 2003 Mathematics education accomplishment, 15 years - PISA, 2003 Science proficiency accomplishment, 15 years - PISA, 2003 Participation Full-time and low maintenance understudies in broad daylight and private organizations, by age: 15-19 as a populace\'s rate of 15 to 19-year-olds (2003) LU SK (2002) Aspirations Percentage of the adolescent populace not in training, not in the work power or unemployed - age 15-19 - OECD, 2003 Proportion of students seeking to low aptitude work, 15 years - PISA, 2000

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Child prosperity and instructive achievement r = 0.15 (ns)

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What clarifies these varieties? Extremely troublesome Probably relies on upon area – requirement for more point by point work National riches matters

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Overall tyke prosperity and GDP per capita complete nations

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WHY? Exceptionally troublesome Probably relies on upon space – requirement for more definite work National riches matters Policy exertion matters

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Child prosperity and use on social insurance advantages as % GDP 2003

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WHY? Exceptionally troublesome Probably relies on upon space – requirement for more point by point work National riches matters Policy exertion matters Direction of that exertion matters

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Child prosperity by use on family advantages and administrations as % GDP all nations

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Self feedback Partly information driven Countries dropped Indicators missing for a few nations - USA Some prosperity markers not accessible – lodging, citizenship…. Legitimacy and unwavering quality of pointers Focus on more established kids Out of date Summarizing markers Z scores Implied weights Weighting equivalent aside from contrasts in pointers per measurement No immediate access to HBSC Cumulating % without respect to certainty interims No measures of scattering

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Thoughts about further work Obviously great if Australia, Iceland, Japan and NZ were in HBSC And US got some information about sexual conduct and children’s emotions! Additionally to have HBSC information all the more rapidly and direct get to Also OECD overhauled their destitution appraises all the more frequently Further investigation advantageous – information accessible Is it la-la-land to request a superior universal overview of kids? ISCI?

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jrb1@york.ac.uk The UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 7 Child destitution in context: An Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries International Society for Child Indicators Inaugural Conference June 26-28 2

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