Thinking and joining: The impacts of assignment multifaceted nature and undertaking conditions on L2 oral generation .


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Reasoning and convergence: The effects of task complexity and task conditions on L2 oral production. Melissa Baralt Georgetown University mlb65@georgetown.edu. Introduction.
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Thinking and union: The impacts of undertaking many-sided quality and assignment conditions on L2 oral creation Melissa Baralt Georgetown University mlb65@georgetown.edu

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Introduction This study inspects how the blend of two errand highlights, +/ - causal thinking and +/ - united arrangement , differentially influence L2 oral generation of learners of Spanish

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Introduction TBLT

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Introduction Proposals for scientific categorizations of errand outline Brindley , 1987; Samuda & Bygate , 2008; Swales, 1990; Candlin , 1987; Ellis, 2003; Nunan , 1989; Pica, Kanagy & Falodun , 1993; Prabhu , 1987; Robinson, 2001, 2005, 2007; Skehan , 1996, 1998; Willis, 1996 Increased enthusiasm for subjective requests of errands and the impacts of errand multifaceted nature e.g., Samuda & Bygate , 2008; Ellis, 2003; Gass & Varonis , 1985; Pica & Doughty, 1985; Pica, Kanagy & Falodun , 1993; Skehan , 1998; Robinson, 2001, 2005, 2007; Robinson & Gilabert, 2007 Cognitive intricacy as a reason for the sequencing of errands Robinson 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009; Robinson & Gilabert, 2007 "right now zones of serious research in SLA" Doughty & Long, 2003, p . 57

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Theoretical foundation: The cognizance theory of assignment based learning Robinson 2001; 2003; 2005; 2007; 2009; Robinson & Gilabert, 2007 precision multifaceted nature familiarity More arrangement work and association

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Triadic componential structure for undertaking grouping ( robinson & gilabert , 2007, p . 164)

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Resource-coordinating variable of +/ - causal thinking The speaker must legitimize their convictions, bolster their elucidations of an occasion Ella quería que, estaba celoso que, deseaba que + complex syntactization in subordinate provisions The Cognition Hypothesis predicts expanded exactness and multifaceted nature in L2 creation, yet diminished measures of familiarity

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Investigations on the +/ - causal thinking differential

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Task condition variable of +/ - focalized arrangement Whether or not learners must \'merge\', or go to an understanding, as a major aspect of the assignment result Duff 1986 Model Independent Goal Shared Goal PROBLEM DEBATE Some learners may incline toward joined undertakings because of social/mental reasons Aston, 1986; Foster, 1998 (refered to in Samuda & Bygate , 2008)

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Investigations on the meeting/dissimilarity differential Significantly more "different fruitions" in disparate errands

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Conclusions from the writing Increases in errand many-sided quality (Cognition Hypothesis) along asset coordinating measurements may build the unpredictability and precision of learners\' yield No study has investigated the consolidated impact of increments in undertaking intellectual many-sided quality (+/ - causal thinking) with the state of +/ - united result Need for more research on factors of undertaking intricacy nearby errand conditions and how these intercede generation, connection

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Research Questions What impacts do +/ - causal thinking and +/ - concurrent arrangement have on: the many-sided quality of L2 learners\' oral creation? the precision of L2 learners\' oral generation? the familiarity of L2 learners\' oral generation? L2 learners\' communication amid an oral assignment? Are any subjective contrasts saw in learner dialect creation when thinking as well as convergency prerequisites are available?

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Participants 58 learners of 2 nd year Intensive Intermediate Spanish Four classes, three instructors (one was scientist) Total of 29 dyads 38 females, 20 guys Dyads: 14 F-F, 5 M-M, 10 M-F Cover a few social segments in class One is the southern cone, to incorporate Argentina\'s Dirty War amid 1970\'s

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La Historia Oficial (The official story)

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Task To think about conceivable continuation of the plot

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Task A (+ causal thinking, + united result) With your accomplice, choose if Gabi ought to remain with Alicia and Roberto or on the off chance that they ought to give her back to her maternal grandma. One of you should take the side that yes, she ought to remain with her receptive family, while alternate says no, Gabi ought to go to live with her grandma. Wrangle with each other while advocating your positions. Note: Even however you have diverse perspectives, toward the end of your verbal confrontation you should go to a last understanding. Be extremely persuading! Interpretation Tasks B (+ causal thinking, - merged result) With your accomplice, talk about if Gabi ought to remain with Alicia and Roberto or in the event that they ought to give her back to her maternal grandma. One of you should take the side that yes, she ought to remain with her supportive family, while alternate says no, Gabi ought to go to live with her grandma. Banter with each other while supporting your positions. Errand C (- causal thinking, + merged result) With your accomplice, choose if Gabi ought to remain with Alicia and Roberto or on the off chance that they ought to give her back to her maternal grandma. Toward the end of the discussion, you should go to an assention . Errand D (- causal thinking, - focalized result) With your accomplice, talk about if Gabi ought to remain with Alicia and Roberto or in the event that they ought to give her back to her maternal grandma.

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Procedure and materials After watching film, in-class dialog on motion picture Task completed after class day All dyads were given their undertaking subject by instructor and recorded with imic and ipod Students were given recordings as an evaluation and to have the capacity to hear themselves deliver in L2 Consent endorsed, specialist later translated all recordings

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Coding: Complexity "The degree to which learners create expand dialect" (Ellis & Barkhuizen , 2005, p . 139) Interactional (commitment), practical, linguistic, lexical, propositional IC: Total # of turns (Duff, 1986) Total # turns per learner as a % of aggregate turns in communication IC: Total # of words, aggregate # words per articulation (Crookes, 1989) GC: syntactic assortment (Yuan & Ellis, 2003) add up to # distinctive linguistic verb frames utilized (i.e., tense, present, past, future) "Touchy" measures (Robinson, 2005) add up to # intellectual state verbs Use of subjunctive in ward predicates as interceded by subjective state phrasing

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Coding: Accuracy "How well the objective dialect is created in connection to the administer arrangement of the objective dialect" (Skehan, 1996, p. 23) # self-amendments (Wigglesworth, 1997) # of self-rectifications as a % of aggregate # of mistakes conferred Total # blunders per 100 words (Mehnert, 1998) # of mistakes/add up to # words created/100 % target-like verbal morphology (Wigglesworth, 1997) # of right limited verb phrases partitioned by aggregate # of verb expressions x 100

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Coding: familiarity, connection Fluency "The generation of dialect progressively without undue delaying or dithering" (Ellis & Barkhuizen , 2005, p . 139) False begins (a wavering marvel of disfluency)(Skehan & Foster, 1999) Utterances/sentences that are not finished (i.e., constitute pieces). They could possibly be trailed by reformulation. Measures of communication Clarification asks for (Ellis & Barkhuizen , 2005; Oliver, 1998) Total # of Questions (Duff, 1986) Grounded-Theory approach for perception of subjective examples underway and collaboration

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Results: many-sided quality What impacts do +/ - causal thinking and +/ - united arrangement have on the multifaceted nature of L2 learners\' oral creation? Add up to # of Turns One-way ANOVAs demonstrated –Causal Reasoning fundamentally more turns

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Results: many-sided quality Total # words; # words per articulation One-way ANOVAs indicated +CR had altogether more words per expression

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Results: multifaceted nature Mean # intellectual state verbs, utilization of subjunctive, syntactic assortment

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Results: precision What impacts do +/ - causal thinking and +/ - focalized arrangement have on the exactness of L2 learners\' oral generation? Mean # self-revisions

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Results: exactness Number of mistakes per 100 words

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Results: precision Percentage of target-like verb morphology

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Results: familiarity What impacts do +/ - causal thinking and +/ - focalized arrangement have on the familiarity of L2 learners\' oral generation? Mean # of False Starts One-way ANOVAs demonstrated essentially more false begins in +Causal Reasoning Group

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Results: cooperation What impacts do +/ - causal thinking and +/ - joined arrangement have on L2 learners\' association amid an oral assignment? Mean # illumination demands, questions

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Results: subjective perceptions Are any subjective contrasts saw in learner dialect generation when thinking and additionally convergency prerequisites are available? Causal thinking requests loaned for any longer talk articulations Convergent versus Different result for the most part clear at end, with disparate results as open-finished " es un tema difícil " Some requested direction; uncertain what to examine In dissimilar undertakings, learners frequently referenced individual accounts and stories

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Causal thinking & concurrent result B – Creo que Gabi um necesita ser con um su abuela um quien es Sara. Y um creo que el dread que fue un … el terrorismo a sus padres um es la razón que Ga… que Gabi um necesita ser con su abuelo porque los desaparecidos um meriten… tan… um sus padres um fueron desaparecidos y um ella necesita um ser con su familia. A-Primero, solo Roberto sé que Gabi es la hija del desaparido Alicia no sé nothing es la es porque la película es porque Alicia no sé que Gabi no es um simplemente un hija que uh necesita un madre. Pero uh creo que Gabi necesita um quedarse con su familia adoptiva, Alicia y Roberto, porque es uh un solo familia que Gabi uh conoce? Uh no es um… es mal por Gabi para um ir con una familia que no sé, que no um veo, que no ve nunca, uh ent

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