Tittabawassee River Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment – Results Hector Galbraith Environmental Sciences Newfane, Vermont October 2003Slide 2
Background Contamination of Tittabawassee River silt by dioxins and furans known since 1980s Between 2000 and 2003 escalated inspecting endeavors by MDEQ and USFWS portrayed size and spatial dissemination of contaminants Based on these information ERA resolved to be fundamental.Slide 3
Tittabawassee River Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) - Objectives Overall goals of ERA: To assess degree to which dioxins and furans in silt of Tittabawassee River and downriver territories posture dangers to natural receptors To portray spatial inconstancy of hazard and to figure out if chance "hotspots" existSlide 4
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment - Objectives of presentation: Provide diagram of methodologies utilized Describe how models and parameters were chosen Evaluate extent and appropriation of hazard to receptors Discuss suggestions for hazard administrationSlide 5
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment – Presentation Structure Overview of lethality, natural conduct of dioxins and furans and their nearness in study range Overall ERA approach TCDD-EQ approach USEPA ERA Framework ERA show parameter recognizable proof Evaluation of hazard Spatial dissemination of hazardSlide 6
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Dioxin/furan harmfulness – outline Intrinsic poisonous quality - edges in organic tissues can be in low ppt (e.g., <10 pg/g, wet weight in chicken eggs – fetus mortality) Environmentally tireless Lipophilic, bioaccumulate and biomagnify in evolved ways of life Pose dangers to top predators (particularly early life-stages)Slide 7
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Dioxin/furan danger – intricacies: Structures exceedingly factor and expansive quantities of isomers (congeners) conceivable: dioxins – 75 (dioxins) furans – 135 (furans) Congeners contrast in inborn poisonous quality (crosswise over 4 requests of greatness) and natural conduct Environmental media ordinarily contain complex blends of congeners – ERA ought to center at level of congenersSlide 8
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Contaminants in Tittabawassee River: Dioxins, furans, and PCBs all present in residue Other contaminants may likewise be available however have not been assessed Most of potential danger driven by dioxins and furans Relatively minimal potential lethality because of PCBs This ERA concentrates on dioxins and furansSlide 9
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Toxicity Equivalence (TEQ) approach: Dioxins/furans exist in study region as mind boggling blends Because of inherent contrasts in poisonous quality, complex blends confuse appraisal of danger Toxicity of every congener in respect to 2,3,7,8-TCDD can be communicated utilizing a Toxicity Equivalence Factor (TEF) various TEF arrangements exist – latest (and most broadly acknowledged for ERA) is WHO By duplicating ecological grouping of every congener by TEF, then including items, we get estimation of harmfulness of blend in respect to 2,3,7,8-TCDD - TCDD-EQ Approach has confinements, is best strategy accessible with generally wide acknowledgmentSlide 10
Selected WHO TEFs: Birds Fish Mammals 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 1 0.5 2,3,7,8-TCDF 1 0.05 0.1 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 0.1 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 0.1 0.05 Differences crosswise over taxa Differences inside taxa Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk AssessmentSlide 11
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Congener Environmental Behavior: Congeners vary additionally in: Abilities of creatures to metabolize and discharge them Efficiencies of organic take-up Propensities to bioaccumulate Knowing characteristic lethality is insufficient – additionally need to gauge congener-particular introductionSlide 12
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment – USEPA 1998 Framework 1. Issue Formulation : Conceptual model Assessment endpoints Analysis arrange 2. Examination : Exposure portrayal Effects portrayal Communication to Risk Managers 3. Chance Characterization : Risk estimation Risk conveyance Risk depictionSlide 13
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Overall approach : Use information from site and parameters from logical writing to assess presentation to piscivorous (fish-eating) untamed life Use information from logical writing to assess affectability of receptors Combine above in hazard portrayal Use dregs danger limits (STCs) to guide dispersion of hazardSlide 14
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment IN OUT Environmental information From site: Sediment PCH conc. Level of Risk: How Much? Natural information from site PCHs in fish tissues PCHs in feathered creature eggs Ecological Risk Assessment Model Spatial Extent of Risk: Where? Writing ValuesSlide 15
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment – Exposure Model Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) Piscivorous Wildlife Mink Birds Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) Bottom-sustaining Fish Benthos Water Column Fish Plankton Sediment PCDDs PCDFs Floodplain Water sectionSlide 16
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment Definition of terms: Biomagnification Factor (BMF) : proportion between contaminant fixation in prey and in tissues of predators. Harmfulness Reference Values (TRVs) : Greatest TCDD-EQ in eating regimen or eggs defensive of living being feasibility (e.g., incipient organism survival) Functions are to make an interpretation of media contaminant focuses into exposures and dangers to environmental receptors. Should be congener-particularSlide 17
Steps In Aquatic ERA Estimate of hazard to avian incipient organisms Estimate of hazard to mink and otter Compare with Egg TRVs Compare with Dietary TRVs Estimate flying creature egg TCDD-EQ BMFs TCDD-EQ Concentrations in prey of mink and otter Fish Tissue TCDD-EQ ConcentrationsSlide 18
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment – Bird Egg TRVs for fledgling developing life survival exist for: Wood duck Mallard Great blue heron Eastern bluebird Forster\'s tern Black-headed gull Common tern Chicken Double-peaked cormorant Rock dove Pheasant Herring gull Turkey Domestic goose Bobwhite American kestrelSlide 19
Tittabawassee River Ecological Risk Assessment – Bird Egg TRVsSlide 20
Bird Egg TCDD-EQ TRVs Most delicate species: 5-50 pg/g, ww Less touchy species: 50-100 pg/g, ww Least delicate species: >100 pg/g, wwSlide 21
Avian Egg TRVs Used In Previous Risk AssessmentsSlide 22
Mammalian Piscivore TRVs *LOAEC – least watched unfavorable impacts focus *NOAEC – No watched unfriendly impacts fixationSlide 23
Mammalian Piscivore TRVs 1 pg/g TCDD-EQ in eating regimen thought to be mink TRV Very like qualities utilized as a part of past Great Lakes ERA 1 pg/g TCDD-EQ additionally thought to be TRV for waterway otterSlide 24
TCDD-EQ TRV - Summary Birds: 5 pg/g, ww in egg 50 pg/g, ww in egg 100 pg/g, ww in egg Mink and River Otter: 1 pg/g, ww in eating routineSlide 25
Steps In Aquatic ERA Estimate of hazard to avian fetuses Estimate of hazard to mink and otter Compare with Egg TRVs Compare with Dietary TRVs Estimate feathered creature egg TCDD-EQ BMFs TCDD-EQ Concentrations in prey of mink and otter Fish Tissue TCDD-EQ ConcentrationsSlide 26
Fish – Bird Egg BMFs: PCDDsSlide 27
Fish – winged animal egg BMFs: PCDFsSlide 28
Fish – fowl egg BMFsSlide 29
TCDD-EQ in Fish TissuesSlide 30
Avian and Mammalian TRVs USEPA 1993 Sediment limits:Slide 31
Estimated TCDD-EQ in Bird EggsSlide 32
Actual TCDD-EQ in Bird Eggs From Assessment and Reference AreasSlide 33
Bird Egg Hazard Indices (HI)Slide 34
Congeners in Bird EggsSlide 35
Mink HIsSlide 36
Mink HIsSlide 37
River Otter HIsSlide 38
Mink and Saginaw Bay Carp Saginaw Bay carp encouraged to hostage mink TCDD-EQ in carp – 78 pg/g, ww (WHO mammalian TEFs) Majority of TCDD-EQ from dioxins and furans 10% carp in eating regimen brought about conceptive impedances Tittabawassee River carp have 128 pg/g, ww TCDD-EQ Giesy et al. (1994); Heaton et al. (1995); Tillitt et al. (1996)Slide 39
Congeners in Fish Prey of MammalsSlide 40
Hazard Indices - SummarySlide 41
Sediment Threshold Concentrations (STCs) STCs are evaluated TCDD-EQ focuses in residue that would bring about HIs equivalent to or under 1 STCs figured utilizing existing silt TCDD-EQ information, and assessed feathered creature egg and mammalian HIsSlide 42
Sediment Threshold Concentrations (STCs) 5 pg/g egg TRV: HI of 206 results from dregs mean TCDD-EQ conc. of 2,109 pg/g HI of 1 would come about because of dregs mean TCDD-EQ conc. of 2,109/206 = 10 pg/gSlide 43
Avian and Mammalian STCsSlide 44
Avian and Mammalian STCsSlide 45
Sediment Threshold Concentration ExceedencesSlide 46
Sediment Threshold Concentration ExceedencesSlide 47
Sediment Threshold Concentration ExceedencesSlide 48
Sediment Threshold Concentration ExceedencesSlide 49
Sediment Threshold Concentration ExceedencesSlide 50
Sediment Threshold Concentration Exceedences No example locales aside from those upriver and quickly downriver of Midland had HI <1 At spatial size of testing and accentuation on depositional regions, chance not bunched into "hotspots" but rather is inescapableSlide 51
Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay Sediments * STC relates to minimum defensive TRV (100 pg/g ww in egg)Slide 52
Risk Summary Furans and dioxins in dregs of Tittabawassee River posture dangers to multiplication and early life phases of piscivorous flying creatures and warm blooded animals Risks to natural life unavoidably dispersed all through the 22 miles of the Tittabawassee River underneath Midland Furans and dioxins in silt of Saginaw River and Bay stance r
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