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Today. Historical linguistics From language language extinction Endangered languages Language change Language families Readings: 12.1-12.2. From language language death. Creoles: the “newest” languages in the world today are the result of creolization
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Today Historical phonetics From dialect dialect annihilation Endangered dialects Language change Language families Readings: 12.1-12.2

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From dialect dialect demise Creoles: the "most up to date" dialects on the planet today are the aftereffect of creolization 1970s: Nicaraguan communication via gestures 1850s: Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea) 1770s: Seselwa (Seychelles, Madagascar)

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From dialect dialect passing Creoles: some are getting to be national dialects (Tok Pisin), others are, as ordinary dialects, vanishing. Why do dialects bite the dust? Loss of local speakers: social transmission closes when there are no youngsters learning it - all amazing (or populace whittling down) - speakers are consumed by another culture with another dialect and social requirement for the dialect diminishes

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From dialect dialect passing Types of dialect demise: Sudden - all beyond words are executed (, e.g. Tasmanian) Radical - speakers quit utilizing the dialect under risk of political constraint or genocide (Nez Perce) Gradual - (most normal) minority dialect ceases to exist in contact with socially prevailing dialect Bottom-to-top - survives just in a couple of settings (e.g., Latin: formal uses)

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Endangered dialects Only 20% of Native American dialects staying in the US are as a rule locally learned by kids Comanche, Apache, Cherokee getting to be terminated (like Indo-European lgs Hittite, Tocharian, Cornish) Some dialects are being rejuvenated

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Revitalization Language Revitalization alludes to any ponder push to recuperate the talked utilization of a dialect that is did not talk anymore or learned at home corpus arranging status arranging Virginia Algonquian (otherwise known as Potomac, Chesapeake) December 2006, Washington Post article

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Revitalization corpus arranging modernization of the dictionary (vocabulary) actualize a composition framework status arranging assemble lay steadfastness Irish: "We won\'t oblige the mixed up view that this crying over the dialect is all wistfulness" acknowledge dialect in more extensive scope of social capacities

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Revitalization Why? "Through its linguistic use, every dialect gives new confirmation on the way of human discernment. Also, in its writing, verse, custom discourse, and word structure, every dialect stores the aggregate scholarly accomplishments of a culture..." (Fromkin et al. 2007) There are ~6,000 dialects on the planet ~3,000 of these have kicked the bucket or will pass on amid the present century Endangered Language Fund

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Language change Languages are continually changing Language change is typical Language change ≠ rot, debasement

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Historical Linguistics Concerned with How dialects change after some time How dialects are identified with each other Diachronic change: dialect change after some time Synchronic change: dialect change at a specific point in time

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Historical Linguistics Sir William Jones (1788): noticed that Sanskrit imparted numerous likenesses to Greek, Latin He recommended they had a typical precursor

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Comparative Method Deducing hereditary relations between dialects by looking at Cognates : words from various dialects that are comparable in frame and significance, recommending a typical cause Used to recreate the proto-dialect (progenitor dialect)

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English Dutch German Swedish Welsh Gaelic French Spanish Portuguese Italian Russian Greek Hindi month Maand monat månad mis mí mois mes mês mese myesyats minas mahina "month" Related Not related shahr kuukausi hilabethe ay bulan inyanga yue timgalu thang iyanvda Arabic (Afro-Asiatic) Finnish (Uralic) Basque (Independent) Turkish (Altaic) Malay (Malayo-Polynesian) Zulu (Niger-Congo) Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Kannada (Dravidian) Vietnamese (Austro-Asiatic) Cherokee (Iroquoian)

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night English nuit French Nacht German nicht Scots natt Swedish nat Danish noch\' Russian nox Latin nakti- Sanskrit natë Albanian noche Spanish noite Portuguese notte Italian nit Catalan nótt Icelandic naktis Lithuanian " night "

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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) The proposed parent dialect of all Indo-European dialects No immediate confirmation for it (unwritten) Reconstructed from later Indo-European dialects by back-following known sound changes

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Family Tree Model Indicates hereditarily related dialects that share basic predecessor The higher up in the tree, the more established it is Mother/parent Daughters Sisters

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Latin French Italian Spanish Portuguese  Mother  Daughters Sisters

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Extinct langs Sub-families

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Language Isolates No known relatives Basque (Spain) Zuni (New Mexico)

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Family Tree Model: issues Implies every dialect is partitioned, free from its neighbors But qualifications btw. dialects are fluffy Suggests new dialects show up/branch off all of a sudden But dialects veer slowly Cannot suit blended dialects

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Sino-Tibetan China Coast Pidgin English Cantonese Mandarin Wu Min... Family Tree Model: issues Cannot suit creoles (blended dialects) e.g. China Coast Pidgin English (1600-1800) Proto-Indo-European . . . Early Modern English Modern English China Coast Pidgin English Brit Engl North Am Engl Is CCPE in some sense "all the more firmly related" to Early Modern English than to Cantonese?

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Australian PE Roper River Creole New Hebrides Pidgin Tok Pisin Hawaiian English Family Tree Model: issues China Coast Pidgin English ought to be spoken to, in light of the fact that it has posterity: China Coast PE South Seas Jargon Sandalwood English Early Melanesian Pidgin

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