Today evening time's Motivation.

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Windows terminals rely on upon system servers for programming, handling and stockpiling virtual sessions? ... Information are handled and put away in PC framework through the vicinity ...
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Tonight\'s Agenda Internet Links & Articles Hardware Software Video & examination Project ???

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What are the 5 fundamental classifications of PC equipment?

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Hardware Input gadgets Output gadgets CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers Secondary stockpiling gadgets Network and telecom gadgets Do you see the framework topic proceeding here? Input, preparing, yield, stockpiling, control/criticism instruments?

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Calculating pre-PC Counting on fingers and toes Abacus: controlling stones or globules to number The word ascertain originates from math, the Latin word for little stone First mechanical calculator Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 Wheels to move counters Machines in the time of industrialization Mechanical weaving machine with cards punched with gaps

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Early registering Charles Babbage and the Analytical Engine 19 th century Machine that figured, put away values in memory and perform sensible examinations Mechanical as opposed to gadgets Herman Hollerith and the 1890 evaluation Punched cards to record enumeration information (where did these originate from??) Cards read in an organizing machine Hollerith\'s organization went onto get to be IBM

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Electronic PCs ENIAC – first electronic and computerized PC 1946 Programmable 5000 computations for each second Used vacuum tubes First era PC Drawbacks: estimate and could just run 1 program

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Next rush of processing Second era, late 1950s Transistors supplant the vacuum tubes 200,000 to 250,000 figurings for each second Third era, mid 1960s Integrated hardware, scaling down Fourth era, 1971 Further scaling down of circuits Multiprogramming and virtual stockpiling Fifth era, 1980s Millions of counts for every second

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Microcomputers (a.k.a. PC\'s) 1975, ALTAIR, flicking switches 1977, Commodore and Radio Shack produce PCs 1979, Apple PC – carport constructed w/RS parts, the quickest offering PC so far 1982, IBM presents the PC which changes the business sector 1984, Apple Macintosh, GUI, mouse, windows, 32-bit OS

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Computer System Categories

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Microcomputer Systems Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual Desktop – fit on an office work area Laptop – little, convenient PC Smaller gadgets??? Different gadgets???

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Microcomputer Systems Workstation – an effective, arranged PC for business experts Network Server – all the more capable microcomputers that direction broadcast communications and asset partaking in little systems

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How corporate purchasers pick PCs Solid execution at a sensible value Operating framework prepared Connectivity – dependable system interface or remote ability Focus on errand particular capacities as opposed to additional items Other contemplations? How is this unique in relation to home buys?

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Terminals – obsolete or reawakened? Gadgets that permit access to a system Dumb terminals – console and video screen with constrained preparing Intelligent terminals – adjusted arranged PCs or system PCs Network terminals or PCs Windows terminals rely on upon system servers for programming, handling and capacity – virtual sessions? Web terminals depend the Internet for working frameworks and programming – UNIVERSAL CLIENT??

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Information Appliances Hand-held microcomputer gadgets – netbooks? Individual advanced associates (PDA) BlackBerry – iphone – phones – and so on Ipad - tablets Video-amusement comforts Other

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Midrange frameworks High-end system servers Minicomputers for exploratory examination and mechanical procedure checking Less expensive to purchase, work and keep up than centralized server

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Mainframe Computer Systems Large, quick capable PC frameworks Large essential and optional stockpiling limit High exchange handling Complex calculations More???????

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Supercomputer Systems Extremely effective frameworks Scientific, building and business applications at to a great degree high speeds Global climate anticipating, military safeguard Parallel handling with a huge number of microchips Billions of operations every second Millions of dollars +

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Computer equipment capacities Input Keyboards, mice, optical scanners Convert information into electronic structure Processing Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic-rationale unit plays out the math capacities Control unit Output Video show units, printers, and so on. Change over electronic data into human-clear shape

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Computer equipment capacities Storage Primary Storage Unit or memory Secondary Storage Magnetic circles and Optical plates Control unit of the CPU Controls alternate parts of the PC Peripherals

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Moore\'s Law Where are we now? Still genuine?

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Storage tradeoffs

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Computer Storage Fundamentals Binary representation Data are handled and put away in PC framework through the nearness or nonattendance of signs Either ON or OFF ON = number 1 OFF = number 0

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Bit and Byte Bit (short for parallel digit) Smallest component of information Either zero or one Byte Group of eight bits which work as a solitary unit Represents one character or number

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Representing characters in bytes

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Computers use twofold framework to ascertain

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Measuring stockpiling limits Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes Megabyte (MB): one million bytes Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes

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Direct and consecutive get to

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Semiconductor memory Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips Used for essential stockpiling Advantage: Small size Fast Shock and temperature resistance Disadvantage: Volatility: must have continuous electric power or lose memory Memristors – the missing part

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Two sorts of semiconductor memory RAM: irregular access memory Primary stockpiling medium Volatile memory Read/compose memory ROM: read just memory Permanent stockpiling (commonly) Can be perused yet can\'t be overwritten – current chips can yet just on the framework level Frequently utilized projects smoldered into chips amid assembling Used to store firmware

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Flash drive Permanent stockpiling Semiconductor memory Small chip with a huge number of transistors Easily transported What about strong state hard drives? Source: Courtesy of Lexar Media.

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Magnetic Disks Used for auxiliary stockpiling Fast get to and high stockpiling limit Source: Corbis. Source: Quantum.

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Types of attractive plates Floppy circles Magnetic plate inside a plastic coat Hard plate drives Magnetic plate, access arms, and read/compose heads in fixed module RAID (Redundant varieties of autonomous circles) Disk varieties of interconnected hard plate drives Fault tolerant with various duplicates on a few circles

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Magnetic Tape Secondary stockpiling Tape reels and cartridges Used in mechanical robotized drive gatherings Archival stockpiling and reinforcement stockpiling

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Optical Disks

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Uses of optical plates Image preparing Long term stockpiling of authentic records of pictures Scan reports and store on optical plates Publishing medium for quick access to reference materials Catalogs, registries, and so on. Intelligent mixed media applications Video amusements, instructive recordings, and so on

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Radio Frequency Identification RFID Tag and distinguish versatile articles E.g., store stock, postal bundles, pets Use RFID chips to transmit and get radio signs Chips a large portion of the extent of a grain of sand Passive chips: don\'t have power source and get power from sign in peruser Active chips: Self-controlled

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RFID versus scanner tags RFID Scan from more prominent separation Can store information Allows more data to be followed Privacy worries because of undetectable nature

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Computer Software System Software Application Software General-Purpose Programs Application-Specific Programs System Management Programs System Development Programs Software

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Operating System Functions Provides a UI Command-driven, Menu driven GUI (graphical UI) Manages equipment – CPU, memory, stockpiling, interchanges, & I/O File Management Task Management

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User Interface Resource Management Task Management File Management Utilities and Other Functions Operating System Overview

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Operating System Types DOS – Windows 3.1 (3.11) MacOS – pre OS X Windows 95/98/Me Windows NT - 3.51, 4, 2000, XP, 2003 Win Vista & 7 UNIX, LINUX, & MacOS X?? Are there others?

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Software Utilities Many previous 3 rd party utilities are presently settled as standard OS segments File Management/exchange/remote access System Maintenance & Disk Utilities Anti-infection & firewalls Zip record programs Others??? Name some . . . .

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Programming Languages Assembly/machine dialect FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, Basic C/C++/C# (the code behind Unix & Linux) Visual Basic SQL (for database improvement) XHTML, XML, CSS (site pages) Java Script, PHP, ASP, Perl, and so on (adds programming energy to website pages) 4GLs – A.I. & non-procedural/regular dialects

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Machine Languages Use parallel coded directions High Level Languages Use brief proclamations Markup Languages Use implanted control codes 1001 1100 1101 <H1>First heading</H> <!ELEMENT Product (#Item | manuf)> Compute X = Y + Z Assembler Languages Use typical coded guidelines Fourth Generation Languages Use common articulations Object-Oriented Languages Define objects that contain information and activities SUM THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS LOD Y ADD Z Document.write ("Hi There") Categories of Programming Languages Evolving towards characteristic dialect . . .

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Application plan What are your Inputs? What is the craved Output? Preparing rationale – How would we arrive? Code – Write the progra

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