Topography/Arranging 379: "Urban Development and Advancement" Address 2: The Development of Urban Structure Recorded Urb.

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Rough City of Tucson Population Density: 5 People for every Acre (3,338 People for each Square Mile) By Comparison: New York City in 1850: 136 People for each Acre ...
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Geology/Planning 379: "Urban Growth & Development" Lecture 2: The Evolution of Urban Form Historical Urban Transportation & Development Eras: The Pedestrian City (1607–1830) The Omnibuses and Early Railroads First Innovations to Increase Mobility (1830–1860) 3. The Horsecar Era (1860–1895) (Cable Cars: A Transitional Mode, 1870s–1900) 4. Streetcar Suburbs (1895–1949) 5. The Demise of the Streetcar: The "Incomparable Transportation Conspiracy" (1930s & 1940s) 6. The Freeway Age (1950–?) Reading Required: Kaplan et al. Course reading, Ch. 3, 58-70;72-82 (skip "Focal Place Theory" segment) Supplementary: Yeates & Garner

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Just how fast is late Population Growth in the Tucson Metropolitan Area? By correlation, World development rate: 1.3%

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How \'Sprawled out\' is Tucson? Rough City of Tucson Population Density: 5 People for each Acre (3,338 People for every Square Mile) By Comparison: New York City in 1850: 136 People for every Acre Per Person: Tucson, 2000: 91\' x 91\' NYC 1850: 18\' x 18\' In 1850, the biggest city in the World was London… … Its thickness: 117 People for every Acre New York City\'s inexact thickness today: 39 People for every Acre

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The Pedestrian City (ca. 1607-1830) Why start with the year 1607? Structure of pre-Industrial Revolution urban areas in U.S. like in Europe Where were urban areas found & what were their capacities? Early assembling found just on waterfront or occurred in art shops in homes Simple area use guide would demonstrate three zones: I Waterfront II Homes of Well-to-do and open bldgs III General populace & craftshops & stores I III II Harbor

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The Pedestrian City (ca. 1607-1830) Riding to work excessively costly until the 1860s for normal individual; needed to live close-by in strolling separation Irony: area was basically "boundless" from the point of view of the Colonists, yet individuals in the urban communities lived pressed together. Country was overwhelmingly a provincial one: 1790, just 5% of the populace was living in \'urban spots\' (review definition!) Why weren\'t there more individuals in the urban communities? Idea of \'Horticultural Surplus\'

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The Pedestrian City (proceeded with) Land for urban development was obliged by water (see draws: Philadelphia & NYC) Rowhouses – strong squares of lodging units as was normal in Europe Conclusion: Tremendous Population Pressure >>> Need for transportation

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Omnibus and Early Railroads: First Innovations to Increase Mobility (1830 – 1860) The Omnibus concocted in France, ca. 1826 First U.S. lines in 1830s Cart drawn by 2 steeds Only conveyed 12 travelers Started numerous conventions of U.S. open transportation: voyaged settled courses with assigned stops and a level rate charge This was first genuine open transportation… The main for-contract transportation before this: hackney mentor (like steed period taxi) restrictively costly aside from the wealthiest

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A 19 th Century Paris Omnibus Wikipedia ( open space photograph)

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Omnibus and Early Railroads: First Innovations to Increase Mobility (1830 – 1860) 1830s – 1850s: Era of the Omnibus 1830s: 70 omnibus lines in NYC; 683 lines by 1853 Not yet mass transportation Fares were too high Inefficient to have 2 stallions and a driver to convey 12 travelers Who rode omnibus lines? Not normal specialist Fares were pushed down because of rivalry 12 ½ ¢ in 1830s to 5 ¢ in 1860s But normal worker made < $1/day

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Omnibus and Early Railroads: First Innovations to Increase Mobility (1830 – 1860) New transportation expanded social partition Wealthier representatives could escape congested focal regions and ride to work environment They did a considerable measure of riding - they went home for lunch, so 4 trips for each day Still genuine today that higher wage individuals travel more than lower wage Top 20% wage bunch represents 33% of travel Bottom 20%, just 9%

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Omnibus and Early Railroads: First Innovations to Increase Mobility (1830 – 1860) We spend enormous sums on transportation 22% of US individual uses for transport Only 9% in Japan Railroads additionally started to be utilized for driving "Perfect of the Agrarian Existence" Most fruitful in Boston, less so in Philadelphia and NYC

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The Horsecar Era (1860 – 1895) Early laws banned the railways as perilous Railroads needed to maneuver trains into stations utilizing groups of steeds This, however, prompted creation of the horsecar rail line (otherwise known as \'horsecar\') Horsecars colossally effective! Enormous interest Building costs: NYC road railroads $214,000/mile; all US rail routes: $43,000 Why? "The expenses of Common Councils and Aldermen are incorporated into the privilege of-way costs." American Railway Times (ca. 1850)

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A horsecar… Wikipedia (pubic space photograph)

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Many focal points of horsecar railroad over omnibuses… Quieter. How were lanes cleared? Omnibus called: "A flawless commotion on wheels\' Safer More proficient Carried 40-70 travelers, utilized same 2 stallions Cheaper to ride – lower tolls per mile Faster Longer courses conceivable, opening up new zones to live Expedited activity stream Fewer vehicles and steeds in the city

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Advances in Urban Transportation from 1830 to 1895 (Omnibus and Horsecar) Resulted in… A spiral, monocentric example of development (with center of trade in old strolling city) Increased portability for upper & high center pay bunches Increased social detachment – in light of the fact that poor people and lower-pay laborers couldn\'t stand to leave the ghettos in the old strolling city The rise of specific business and private regions The partition of business regions into segments for specific capacities

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During the horsecar period… Cities now expanded 8 – 10 miles out from old walker city center Transportation still excessively costly and moderate (5-8 mph max.) for the masses to move out Not only the charge was unreasonably expensive: Typical work day 10 – 13 hours; specialists did not have an ideal opportunity to drive extremely far Tenement zones with unfathomably high densities as yet expanding, in spite of achievement of horsecar railroads

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What might supplant the horsecars? Huge issue with horsecars … the stallions! The "Incomparable Epizootic" executed more than 2,000 stallions in Philadelphia in 3 weeks Tried raising steam railroads: disappointment Cable autos were a transitional mode: 1870s – 1900 Key idea of link auto: separate steam power source from vehicle Real achievement: jolt! The trolley auto, otherwise known as electric streetcar, the electric footing line [to be proceeded… ]

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POP QUIZ Name ________ Put the accompanying types of transportation in the right request of ordered appropriation in American urban communities: Electric Streetcar or Trolley Car Omnibus Automobile Horsecar Railway ANSWER:

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