Toward a Selectionist Framework for Behavioral and Cultural Selection .

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Determination in Three Domains. Natural (Phylogenic ) choice
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Toward a Selectionist Framework for Behavioral and Cultural Selection AILUN – Lecture 5 Sigrid Glenn

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Selection in Three Domains Organic (Phylogenic ) determination – Contingencies of normal choice record for beginning and advancement of species and relations among them (locus: Earth) 1 Operant ( Ontogenic ) choice – Contingencies of fortification record for root and development of operants and complex relations among them (locus: collections of individual living being) 1 Cultural ( Sociogenic ) choice – Contingencies of social choice record for source and advancement of complex social level substances and the relations among them (locus: financial elements working as intelligible wholes – "societies") 2

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Selectionist Theories of Cultural Evolution Variations of proposed models for all intents and purposes dependably forget the part of operant conduct and operant choice The unit of choice at the social level is not recognized Elements in the frameworks recommended are not indicated There is a solid inclination to see the site of maintenance in social choice as quality genealogies or brains There is a solid propensity to view characteristic choice as the instrument representing society Brains Natural Selection

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A Behaviorist Perspective Nervous Systems Culturo-behavioral Lineages (implanted in IBCs) Natural choice Operant choice Cultural choice Operant procedures as the result of common choice Operant conduct as result of operant procedures in addition to the particulars of operant possibilities Operant conduct as stage for rise of "social things" Units of choice at social level dependably include operant conduct and infrequently include sorted out "social things" that can experience choice of a third kind

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Operant Selection, Social Behavior & Social Learning Operant choice records for most social and also non-social conduct of people Social conduct Defined: Behavior for which the conduct of others capacities as condition in possibilities of support Social conduct is installed in interlocking possibilities Distinguished as "social" by substance of components in the possibilities The condition that is "worked on" is the conduct of another person or potentially Someone else\'s conduct capacities as discriminative jolt, reinforcer , and so forth Verbal conduct is a noteworthy segment of social conduct in people Humans perhaps very helpless to social incitement Social learning 3 Defined: Behavior procured accordingly of social association No new procedure required to clarify social conduct or social learning

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From Learned Social Behavior to Cultural Organization Interlocking behavioral possibilities (IBC) are the littlest supra-organismic individual Behavior obtained by learners partaking in IBC may never take an interest in those IBC again (ex: once educated to peruse, learner can read without educator working as condition) Behavior gained by learners taking an interest in IBC may happen in other IBC (ex: peruser can react in class to what she has perused) Patterns of IBC can be transmitted to numerous behavers in brief time Resulting in homogeneity of conduct crosswise over many individuals Resulting in homogeneity of interlocking behavioral possibilities in gatherings

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From Learned Social Behavior to Cultural Organization Behavior obtained by learners taking an interest in IBC may turn out to be a piece of repeating IBCs (ex: Once 2 individuals learn autonomously to sail, they may cruise a vessel together – agreeably) Successive replications of IBC crosswise over collections constitute a culturo - behavioral heredity Repetition of IBC groupings including similar individuals can be extended to incorporate the conduct of extra individuals and expanding "division of work" in achieving a result IBCs can get to be distinctly mind boggling and turn out to be progressively related Larger units subsume numerous littler units Larger and littler units take an interest in their own possibilities

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Nested Interlocking Behavioral Contingencies in Complex Cultural Entities 4

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Recap of Elements of Behavior Analytic Selectionist Framework Behavior happens at locus of individual creature Relations amongst conduct and condition are the topic Environment incorporates both physical and get-togethers Unit of examination is possibilities of behavioral choice (fortification/elimination) Behavioral level units (operants) have starting points in possibilities of fortification Repertoire of a specific living being incorporates numerous operants

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From Operant Contingencies to Cultural Contingencies of Selection Extends the conduct scientific viewpoint to social choice Cultural choice characterized as choice of cognizant wholes including the conduct of at least 2 individuals Coordinated conduct of different people happens at locus of interlocking behavioral possibilities Relations amongst IBCs and their condition are the topic Environment incorporates physical and get-togethers Unit of investigation is metacontingencies (choice/deselection) Cultural level units have cause in social level choice possibilities Phenomena constituting a specific culture incorporates numerous behavioral units and numerous social level units

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Operant Selection Contingencies as Model Movements in connection to the earth (lever) Effect on condition (some portion of the behavioral definition) Contingent activity of outside condition Operant Consequence Recurring lever squeezes All other conduct Switch Closures Food Pellet Behavioral Contingency I F it is shown that the behavioral possibility brings about expanded recurrence of lever presses, then 1) The genealogy of repeating lever presses is an operant 2) The behavioral possibility is a practical (operant) possibility 3) The outer condition is choosing for lever squeezes that have the impact of shutting the switch (e.g.. lever presses with constrain values > x)

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A Cultural Analog of Operant Contingencies Operant practices of at least 2 individuals are identified with each other in a specific example (interlocking behavioral possibilities - IBCs ) We angle together, you working the net and I moving the pontoon and being post for you (our development/impacts work as SDs and Sr+ for 1 another) IBCs (the example of interrelated operant possibilities) can repeat We angle together similarly ordinarily The IBCs can bring about an item that is the impact of the IBCs Our planned angling operants net 100 fish (closely resembling switch conclusion as impact of lever squeezing) nature outside to the IBCs gives outcomes dependent upon the item (builds up a social possibility) People on shore give us cash for fish we can\'t eat The social possibility between (1) IBCs/their subsequent item and (2) activity by the outer condition can capacity to keep up repeats of the IBCs that outcome in the item)

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Schematic of Metacontingency Behavior of at least 2 individuals Action of outside condition Effect on condition: Cultural Product Culturant Cultural Consequence Recurring IBCs (Specified operants and interlocks) All different operants/interlocks Buyers pay for fish Surplus Fish Metacontingency I F it is shown that the social possibility brings about expanded recurrence of IBCs having the predetermined operants and interlocks 1) The heredity of repeating IBCs is a culturant (named by Chad Hunter) 2) The social possibility is a useful metacontingency 3) The outside condition chooses for components of IBCs that outcome in fish

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Summary Operant social conduct is the substance that connections organic advancement to social development Social transmission of educated conduct requires interlocking behavioral possibilities (IBC) Learned social conduct frames the premise of social association Complex social association involves chains of command of IBC Recurring IBC might be chosen by an outside domain

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References 5 1 Skinner, B. F. (1981). Determination by outcomes. Science, 213, 501-504. 2 Glenn, S. S. (2003). Operant possibilities and the beginning of societies. In K.A. Lattal & P. N. Pursue ( Eds ). Conduct Theory and Philosophy . New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Galef , B. G., Jr. (1988). Impersonation in creatures: History, definition and translation of information from the mental research center. In T. R. Zentall & B. G. Galef , Jr. ( Eds ). Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Glenn, S. S. (2004). Singular conduct, culture, and social change. The Behavior Analyst, 27 , 133-151.

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