Tubes, Transistors and Enhancers.


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Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics. 11. The transistor beneath is one-sided ... 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics. 16. Transistor Maintenance Chart. This ...
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Slide 1

Tubes, Transistors and Amplifiers CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Interest In 1947, Bardeen & Brattain at Bell Laboratories made the primary intensifier! Shockley (manager), drew close to crossing out the task. The three shared a Nobel Prize. Bardeen and Brattain proceeded in examination (and Bardeen later won another Nobel). Shockley quit to begin a semiconductor organization in Palo Alto. It collapsed, yet its staff went ahead to create the coordinated circuit (the "chip") & to establish the Intel Corporation. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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(+) Plate (- ) Shield Control Grid (- ) Cathode Inert Gas Heater Control Grid: Controls intensification rate & electron stream with inclination voltage. Shield: Screen framework builds electron speed cathode to + plate. Radiator: Heats gas to gas enhancement state. Inactive Gas: Mercury or Argon gas. Tetrode Tube CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) 3 Electron Beams (Red, Green, Blue) Phosphor Coated Screen Conductive Coating Grids (- ) Cathode (+) Anode The cathode is a warmed fiber (like light fiber) in a vacuum inside a glass tube. The beam is a flood of electrons that normally empty off a warmed cathode into the vacuum. The + anode draws in the electrons pouring off the cathode. In a TV\'s CRT, the surge of electrons is engaged by a centering anode into a tight bar and afterward quickened by a quickening anode. This tight, rapid light emission flies through the vacuum in the tube and hits the level screen at the flip side of the tube. This screen is covered with phosphor, which sparkles when struck by the shaft. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistors History Created in 1948 in the AT&T Bell Laboratories. Researchers were performing doping investigates semiconductor material (diodes) and built up a semiconductor gadget having three (3) PN intersections. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Construction NPN/PNP Block Diagrams Emitter Collector N P N Base Emitter Collector P N P Base CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Theory For any transistor to lead, two things must happen. The emitter - base PN intersection must be forward one-sided . The base - authority PN intersection must be converse one-sided . Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Biasing (NPN) FB RB Collector - Emitter + N P N Base + CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Biasing (PNP) FB RB Emitter Collector - P N P + Base - CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Operation (PNP) 90% of the present transporters go through the opposite one-sided base - gatherer PN intersection and enter the authority of the transistor. 10% of the present transporters exit transistor through the base. The inverse is valid for a NPN transistor. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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The transistor beneath is one-sided such that there is a level of forward inclination on the base - emitter PN intersection. Any information got will change the size of forward inclination & the measure of current course through the transistor. Speaker Operation +V CC R C + R B + Q 1 0 Input Signal Output Signal CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Amplifier Electric Switch Operation When the info sign is sufficiently substantial, the transistor can be crashed into immersion & cutoff which will make the transistor go about as an electronic switch. Immersion - The locale of transistor operation where a further increment in the info signal causes no further increment in the yield signal. Cutoff - Region of transistor operation where the information sign is diminished to a point where least transistor biasing can\'t be looked after => the transistor is no more one-sided to lead. (no present streams) CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Amplifier Electric Switch Operation Transistor Q-point Quiescent point : district of transistor operation where the biasing on the transistor causes operation/yield with no info signal connected. The biasing on the transistor decides the measure of time a yield sign is created. Transistor Characteristic Curve This bend shows all estimations of I C and V CE for a given circuit. It is bend depends on the level of DC biasing that is given to the transistor preceding the use of an info signal. The estimations of the circuit resistors, and V CC will decide the area of the Q-point. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Transistor Characteristic Curve I B I C 90 uA 80 uA 70 uA Q-Point Saturation 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA 20 uA 10 uA 0 uA V CE Cutoff CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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When investigating transistors, do the accompanying: Remove the transistor from the circuit, if conceivable. Utilize a transistor analyzer, if accessible, or utilize a computerized multimeter set for resistance on the diode scale . Test each PN intersection independently. ( A "front to back" proportion of no less than 10:1 shows a decent transistor). Transistor Maintenance CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Transistor Maintenance Transistor Maintenance Chart This outline demonstrates the readings for a decent transistor. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Questions Q1. What is the 7 stage investigating strategy? A1. Side effect acknowledgment, manifestation elaboration, list conceivable flawed capacities, recognize broken capacity, distinguish defective segment, disappointment investigation, repair, retest. Q2. What was the most troublesome issue you ever troubleshot? A2. Different CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Amplifier Classification Amplifiers can be grouped in three ways: Type (Construction/Connection) Common Emitter Common Base Common Collector Bias (Amount of time amid every half-cycle yield is created). Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C Operation Amplifier Electronic Switch CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Output Signal Flow Path Input Signal Flow Path Common Emitter Schematic +V CC R C + R B + Q 1 0 Input Signal Output Signal CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Kirchoff Voltage Law DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths +V CC Base - Emitter Circuit R C I B R B + V BE - V CC = 0 R B Collector - Emitter Circuit Q 1 I C R C + V CE - V CC = 0 CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Common Emitter Operation Positive Going Signal Negative Going Signal + R C 0 Base turns out to be more (+) WRT Emitter  Input Signal R B FB   I C   V R C   V C   Q 1 V OUT  ( Less + ) Base turns out to be less (+) WRT Emitter  + FB   I C   Output Signal V R C   V C   V OUT  ( More + ) 0 CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Common Base Schematic Q 1 Input Signal Flow Path R C R E R B + C 0 +V CC 0 Output Signal Flow Path CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Kirchoff Voltage Law DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths Q 1 Base - Emitter Circuit R C I B R B + V BE + I E R E - V CC = 0 R E R B C +V CC Collector - Emitter Circuit I C R C + V CE + I E R E - V CC = 0 CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Common Base Operation Q 1 Positive Going Signal Negative Going Signal Base turns out to be more (+) WRT Emitter  R C R E R B FB   I C   V R C   V C   C +V CC V OUT  ( More + ) + Base turns out to be less (+) WRT Emitter  FB   I C   0 V R C   V C   0 V OUT  ( Less + ) Input Signal Output Signal CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Common Collector Schematic Output Signal Flow Path +V CC R B + Q 1 0 Input Signal + R E 0 Input Signal Flow Path Output Signal CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Kirchoff Voltage Law DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths +V CC Base - Emitter Circuit I B R B + V BE + I E R E - V CC = 0 R B Q 1 Collector - Emitter Circuit I C R C + V CE + I E R E - V CC = 0 R E CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Common Collector Operation +V CC Positive Going Signal Negative Going Signal R B Base turns out to be more (+) WRT Emitter  FB   I E   Q 1 V R E   V E   V OUT  ( More + ) R E Base turns out to be less (+) WRT Emitter  + FB   I E   0 V R E   V E   Input Signal Output Signal V OUT  ( Less + ) CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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AZAZA VOPINI & House of BEC Common B E C Av = Voltage Gain Zo = Output Impedance Ap = Power pick up Zin = Input Impedance Ai = Current Gain CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Transistor Bias Stabilization Used to adjust for temperature impacts which influences semiconductor operation. As temperature builds, free electrons pick up vitality and leave their cross section structures which causes current to increment. Penny 112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Types of Bias Stabilization Self Bias : A segment of the yield is nourished back to the information 180 o out of stage. This negative input will diminish general intensifier pick up. Settled Bias : Uses resistor in parallel with Transistor emitter-base intersection. Blend Bias : This type of inclination adjustment utilizes a mix of the emitter resistor structure and a voltage divider. It is designe

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