UEET 102.


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Address 1 Introduction to Geologic Materials and Nanotechnology ... Nanotechnology in Geology. What are a few utilizations of nanotechnology in geography (or: ...
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UEET 102 Lecture 1 Introduction to Geologic Materials and Nanotechnology Review of phrasing Nanotechnology and Geosciences Mineral development and properties Crystal Growth Concept of a cross section Lecture 2 – Asbestos Form Minerals What is asbestos? Analyzing silicate structures Phyllosilicates and twofold chain silicates Asbestos wellbeing perils Lecture 3 – Clays and Nanotechnology Crystal structure Crystal Morphology Properties because of morphology and precious stone structure Use and contextual analysis

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UEET 102 Lecture 1 – Introduction Review of wording Nanotechnology and Geosciences Mineral arrangement and properties Crystal Growth Concept of a cross section

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Nanotechnology in Geology What are a few utilizations of nanotechnology in topography (or: How can nanotechnology advantage from geography?). Nanotechnology goes underground to help oil creation. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=4084.php Typically 60 percent of oil stays underground after essential, optional and sometimes even tertiary recuperation strategies. Will create canny subsurface smaller scale and nanosensors that can be infused into oil and gas repositories to describe the space (compound and physical attributes of existing oil and gas supplies) in three measurements and enhance the recuperation of existing and new hydrocarbon assets.

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Nanotechnology in Geology Nanotechnology goes underground to support oil creation. http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=4084.php Typically 60 percent of oil stays underground after essential, auxiliary and sometimes even tertiary recuperation strategies. Will create shrewd subsurface small scale and nanosensors that can be infused into oil and gas stores to describe the space (compound and physical qualities of existing oil and gas supplies) in three measurements and enhance the recuperation of existing and new hydrocarbon assets.

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Nanotechnology in Geology Future nanotech apparatuses produced using earth Rochester, N.Y.- based organization has figured out how to utilize Halloysite, an actually happening tubular dirt, as an unpretentious bearer in metals, scents and different substances ( http://news.cnet.com/Future-nanotech-devices produced using mud/2100-11390_3-5914034.html ). Halloysite - Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 Nanotech earth shield makes heat proof hard wearing latex emulsion paints ( http://www.physorg.com/news104666616.html ) Laponite muds Disks are 1 nm thick by 25 nm in width

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Minerals A mineral is a crystalline strong, shaped by common land forms, with a particular concoction sythesis. Structure in the geosphere (most minerals), hydrosphere (e.g., halite), biosphere (e.g., calcite), and even the climate (e.g., water ice, as snow) Consistent and conspicuous physical and substance properties

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Minerals A mineral must meet the accompanying criteria: Crystalline strong Atoms are orchestrated in a steady and systematic geometric example Forms through characteristic topographical procedures Has a particular compound organization Rock-framing minerals Although more than 4000 minerals have been recognized, just a couple of hundred are sufficiently normal to be by and large imperative to topography (rock-shaping minerals) Over 90% of Earth\'s outside layer is made out of minerals from just 5 bunches (feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, quartz)

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Important particles in minerals When a molecule loses or picks up an electron to or from another iota it is called a particle . Emphatically charged particles (loss of electron) are cations . Contrarily charged particles (addition of electron) are anions . anions charge cations charge Si +4 K +1 Ca +2 Na +1 Al +3 Mg +2 Fe +2 or +3 O − 2

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Bonding and Atomic Arrangement Atomic structure of jewel (C) Atomic structure of graphite (C)

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Composition of Earth\'s Crust Minerals have crystalline structures Regular 3-D course of action of molecules d-spacings range from 0.7 to 24 Å ( 0.07 to 2.4 nm).

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Crystal Structure Anions are for the most part bigger than cations Structure of mineral decided to a great extent by how the anions are masterminded and how the cations fit between them.

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Silicate Structures The Silicon-Oxygen tetrahedron Strongly reinforced silicate particle Four oxygens encompassing a silicon particle Basic structure (tetrahedra) for silicate minerals

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Atomic Packing plans 0.225

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Silicate Structures Sharing of O molecules in tetrahedra The more shared O iotas per tetrahedron, the more mind boggling the silicate structure

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Silicate Structures Sharing of O iotas in tetrahedra Isolated tetrahedra (none shared) Chain silicates (2 shared) Double-chain silicates (substituting 2 and 3 shared) Sheet silicates (3 shared) Framework silicates (4 shared)

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Non-silicate Minerals Carbonates Contain CO 3 in their structures (e.g., calcite - CaCO 3 ) Sulfates Contain SO 4 in their structures (e.g., gypsum - CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) Sulfides Contain S (yet no O) in their structures (e.g., pyrite - FeS 2 ) Oxides Contain O, however not attached to Si, C or S (e.g., hematite - Fe 2 O 3 ) Hydroxides Contain OH, yet not clung to Si, C or S (e.g., brucite – Mg(OH) 2 ) Native components Composed altogether of one component (e.g., jewel - C; gold - Au)

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Polymorphs Minerals with the same substance piece, yet distinctive structure. precious stone and graphite – C andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite – Al 2 SiO 5

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Mineral Properties Color Visible tone of a mineral Streak Color deserted when mineral is scratched on unglazed porcelain Luster Manner in which light reflects off surface of a mineral Hardness Scratch-resistance Crystal structure External geometric structure Cleavage Breakage along level planes Fracture Irregular breakage Specific gravity Density with respect to that of water Magnetism Attracted to magnet Chemical response Calcite bubbles in weaken HCl

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Thought Exercise Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of C, why are their properties so distinctive? What are the employments of jewel and graphite and why do they vary?

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Lattice and Unit Cell Concepts Are these Lego hinders the same? Would a structure made of yellow pieces appear to be identical as one made of yellow and white? Could we characterize an expansive structure by taking a gander at a littler subset of the structure?

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Lattice and Unit Cell Concepts In 1784 Ren é Ha ü y concocted a clarification for development morphology and normal cleavage planes. He suggested that precious stones are developed from rudimentary parallelepipeds (a polyhedron comprising of three sets of parallel confronts) topping off spaces without crevices. Parallelepipeds are admired unit cells (the fundamental rehashing unit that can produce a whole precious stone structure). SEM picture of europium-tellurium composite

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Crystal Morphology and Symmetry The symmetry of precious stone appearances is because of the requested interior course of action of molecules, this is known as a cross section . In 2-measurements a plane cross section comprises of a methodical cluster of focuses characterized by the separating and edges between focuses. The cluster can be recreated by determining the separation and edge from point to point.  This is alluded to as translational symmetry . 3-dimensional exhibits are called space cross sections.

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Let\'s begin toward the starting! Nucleation – The onset of a stage move in a little yet artificially stable space. Rises of carbon dioxide nucleate soon after the weight is discharged from a holder of carbonated fluid. Nucleation

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Nucleation can happen in the inside of a uniform substance, by a procedure called homogeneous nucleation. This requires a great deal of vitality and is genuinely troublesome. Nucleation frequently happens all the more effectively at a prior interface (heterogeneous nucleation), as happens on bubbling chips and prexisting mineral stages. Nucleation

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What is gem development and crystallization? Precious stone development is a piece of the crystallization procedure and speaks to changing compound dependability. Precious stone Growth

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What is gem development and crystallization? What components can impact gem development? Precious stone Growth Pressure +differential P Temperature ° of undercooling Time/Growth Rate Solution elements Interface controls All of this in respect to balance of a stage

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What is gem development? Gem Growth Sketch to delineate the impact of relative development rates on the strength of appearances. Faces with the slowest development rate rule the morphology. (a) Slower developing confronts p and s start to command face m. (b) Faces p and s are overwhelm by slower developing face m.

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Crystal Morphology and Symmetry Crystal faces create along planes characterized by the focuses in the cross section. All gem faces must meet particles or atoms that make up the focuses. Perception: The recurrence with which a given face in a precious stone is watched is relative to the thickness of grid hubs along that plane A face is all the more ordinarily created in a gem on the off chance that it meets a bigger number of cross section focuses. This is known as the Bravais Law.

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Crystal Morphology Because appearances have an immediate relationship to the inward structure, they should have an immediate and reliable precise relationship to each different Nicholas Steno (1669): Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles Quartz

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Thought Exercise In what ways would we be able to stress ideal nanotechnology properties through controls on precious stone development? What can Geology show us?

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