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Understanding The Muslim World.


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Understanding The Muslim World University of Texas College of Liberal Arts Aga Khan Development Network Islam in World Cultures Project November 18-21, 2004 Think About It!
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Understanding The Muslim World University of Texas College of Liberal Arts Aga Khan Development Network Islam in World Cultures Project November 18-21, 2004

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Think About It! By perceiving the generalizations we hold about others – and others hold about us – we can start to see one another better.

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Think About It! What generalizations of the Muslim World do Westerners have? What generalizations of Westerners do individuals in the Muslim World have?

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Religious Fanaticism Oppression of Women Deserts, Turbans, Terrorists Advocates of Violence Arabs = Muslims Hatred of Non-Muslims Fundamentally Different Religion Stereotypes About Muslims

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Abundance & Wealth Lack of Family Values Hypocritical, Democratic Ideals Absence of Morals Exploitation of Women Stereotypes About Westerners

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United States 7 Million Muslims 53% Indo-Pakistani 47% African-Americans Middle East 400 Million Muslims Arab World 270 Million Muslims Where is the Muslim World? U.S. Center East 130 Million Non-Muslims Arab World Middle East Muslim World Muslim World 1.3 Billion Muslims India Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Great Britain Canada Audrey Shabbas, Middle East Policy Council

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P olitical Influences E conomic Influences A rea and Geographic Influences P.E.R.S.I.A. I ntellectual and Arts Influences R eligious Influences S ocial Influences

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P olitical Influences

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Political Influences European Imperialism All the immense forces of Europe – Britain, France, Germany, and Russia – looked to control regular assets, make markets for their businesses, and set up provinces around the world. Egypt and North Africa South Africa India and South Asian Subcontinent

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Political Influences Ethnic Minorities Kurds – Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria Berbers – North Africa Albanians and Armenians – Eastern Europe

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Political Influences Political Structures Today Royal families – Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Morocco Strong pioneers – Syria, some time ago in Iraq Democratic governments – Turkey, Iran

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Political Influences Should The West endeavor to “democratize” the Middle East and other Islamic ranges? Is majority rule government perfect with Islam? What part does religion play in legislative issues in the Muslim world? What are the weights for and against majority rules system in the Muslim world? Does the United States have the privilege to evacuate an administration and force vote based system?

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Political Influences “Islam is a finished lifestyle; it covers the whole range of human exercises. Islam means complete duty and subordination of all parts of life – singular, social, monetary, political, universal – to God. Henceforth, Islam is both religion and governmental issues, church and state, joined in a solitary objective of serving God and executing His commandments.” Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad

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Speech by President Bush, November 7, 2003 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec03/democracy_11-07.html#

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Political Influences YES, the United States SHOULD force majority rule government. Human rights records among the most exceedingly awful on the planet Connections to terrorism Model majority rules system may lead other Arab governments to take after Could evacuate our troops Oil costs may drastically drop

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Political Influences NO, the United States SHOULD NOT force vote based system. Against Western supposition could develop in the district – environment of doubt Islam is not on a very basic level good with majority rules system Clash of advancement versus traditionalism

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Political Influences Take a stand! Where do you fall on the range? Do you concur or can't help contradicting the accompanying statement….. The United States ought to force popular government on undemocratic administrations in the Middle East and the Muslim world.

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E conomic Influences

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Economic Influences Water is imperative for its shortage as opposed to its wealth Disputes over water rights undermine political connections in the zone Egypt, Iran, and Turkey are the main nations in the locale with inexhaustible new water sources

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Economic Influences Turkey arrangements to construct a progression of 24 hydroelectric dams on the Euphrates River for its developing populace and commercial enterprises that would definitely decrease water to Syria and Iraq Syria dammed piece of the Euphrates River interfering with the supply of water to Iraq

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Economic Influences Oil has made open doors and issues for the Middle East Nations have figured out how to control their generation of oil as a global technique Uneven circulation of oil stores has made a substantial crevice in the middle of rich and poor

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Economic Influences By 2050 Central Asia will give more than 80% of oil dispersed to the US making Afghanistan and Turkey of key significance

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R eligious Influences

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Religious Influences Five Pillars of Islam Sunni and Shi’a Spread of Islam Crusades

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Religious Influences Five Pillars of Islam Profession of confidence Prayer five times each day Almsgiving – philanthropy Fasting from dawn to dusk amid Ramadan Hajj – journey to Mecca ideal

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Sunnis-Believe Muslim initiative goes to caliphs chose from Muslim families Support tenet of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman Believe each individual has an immediate association with Allah Shi’as: Believe that authority is restricted to relatives of Muhammad Reject principle of initial three caliphs Feel that imam gives an otherworldly connection to Allah Accept Muhammad as God’s last prophet Believe that the Qur’an contains the expression of Allah Use the 5 Pillars of Faith as an aide for fitting conduct Religious Influences

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Religious Influences Spread of Islam Fatimids and Mamluks in Northern Africa - Cairo (656-661) Umayyads - Damascus (680 to 750) Abbasids - Baghdad (750 to 1258) Muslim Spain - Cordova (711 to1492) Seljuq Turks and Sultans of Rum - Constantinople(1055 to 1243)

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Religious Influences Crusades Seljuq Turks took control of Jerusalem in 1070 By 1095, the Muslim World incorporated the area where Jesus Christ had lived Christians trusted that Christians, not Muslims, ought to control the sacred grounds of the Middle East.

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S ocial Influences

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Social Influences The consecrated book of Islam is the Qur’an An accumulation of practices, customs and maxims of Muhammad is the Hadith Pork and pork items are taboo and considered unfortunate Ablution before supplication to God – washing hands, face and feet

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Social Influences Muslims must decline liquor or medications Muslims look for absolution from Allah and nobody else – requested through day by day petition to God Women’s dress - The diagram of a woman’s body ought not be uncovered

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Social Influences Some ladies decide to wear the hijab (scarf or cloak) to cover their hair Muslims ought to dependably regard their guardians, regardless of the possibility that they dissent

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Women and The Veil http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/ladies/

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Social Influences Conflict in Context – Palestinians and Israelis Partition after World War II in 1947 One of the most persevering, dangerous clashes in world history Root in the memorable case to the area which lies between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River

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Social Influences Conflict in Context – Palestinians and Israelis Jews need to come back to the place where there is their ancestors after abuse far and wide For Palestinians, the most recent 100 years has brought a long scan for a country after colonization, removal, and occupation.

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Jews proclaimed the condition of Israel in 1948 Between 1949 and 1967, Israel controlled western Jerusalem and Jordan controlled eastern Jerusalem including the old walled city containing vital Jewish, Muslim and Christian religious destinations

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Israel caught all of Jerusalem in 1967 Israel is resolved that Jerusalem be unified and controlled by Israel Palestinians are looking to build up their capital in East Jerusalem Israel has the capacity screen and control go in a great part of the West Bank

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Social Influences Conflict in Context – India and Pakistan Partition after World War II in 1947 An expected ½ million individuals kicked the bucket in savagery Territories of Jammu and Kashmir stay in question – lion's share Muslim Both India and Pakistan have weapons of mass devastation

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I ntellectual and Arts Influences

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Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture Secular Art and Architecture

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Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture – The Mosque is at the heart of Islamic craftsmanship

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Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture – Arabesque

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Intellectual and Arts Influences Secular Art and Architecture Princely cycle

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Intellectual and Arts Influences Secular Art and Architecture Ceramics

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A rea and Geographic Influences

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Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate Vast Geographic Differences

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Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate The rich ripe soil of the Middle East drove early civic establishments to settle, train plants and creatures, and flourish The slopes of Lebanon were forested in old times for their fragrant and fundamentally solid wood

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Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate Mountains have given shelter to persecuted minorities, for