Understanding The Muslim World University of Texas College of Liberal Arts Aga Khan Development Network Islam in World Cultures Project November 18-21, 2004Slide 2
Think About It! By perceiving the generalizations we hold about others â and others hold about us â we can start to see one another better.Slide 3
Think About It! What generalizations of the Muslim World do Westerners have? What generalizations of Westerners do individuals in the Muslim World have?Slide 4
Religious Fanaticism Oppression of Women Deserts, Turbans, Terrorists Advocates of Violence Arabs = Muslims Hatred of Non-Muslims Fundamentally Different Religion Stereotypes About MuslimsSlide 5
Abundance & Wealth Lack of Family Values Hypocritical, Democratic Ideals Absence of Morals Exploitation of Women Stereotypes About WesternersSlide 6
United States 7 Million Muslims 53% Indo-Pakistani 47% African-Americans Middle East 400 Million Muslims Arab World 270 Million Muslims Where is the Muslim World? U.S. Center East 130 Million Non-Muslims Arab World Middle East Muslim World Muslim World 1.3 Billion Muslims India Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Great Britain Canada Audrey Shabbas, Middle East Policy CouncilSlide 7
P olitical Influences E conomic Influences A rea and Geographic Influences P.E.R.S.I.A. I ntellectual and Arts Influences R eligious Influences S ocial InfluencesSlide 8
P olitical InfluencesSlide 9
Political Influences European Imperialism All the immense forces of Europe â Britain, France, Germany, and Russia â looked to control regular assets, make markets for their businesses, and set up provinces around the world. Egypt and North Africa South Africa India and South Asian SubcontinentSlide 10
Political Influences Ethnic Minorities Kurds â Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria Berbers â North Africa Albanians and Armenians â Eastern EuropeSlide 11
Political Influences Political Structures Today Royal families â Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Morocco Strong pioneers â Syria, some time ago in Iraq Democratic governments â Turkey, IranSlide 12
Political Influences Should The West endeavor to âdemocratizeâ the Middle East and other Islamic ranges? Is majority rule government perfect with Islam? What part does religion play in legislative issues in the Muslim world? What are the weights for and against majority rules system in the Muslim world? Does the United States have the privilege to evacuate an administration and force vote based system?Slide 13
Political Influences âIslam is a finished lifestyle; it covers the whole range of human exercises. Islam means complete duty and subordination of all parts of life â singular, social, monetary, political, universal â to God. Henceforth, Islam is both religion and governmental issues, church and state, joined in a solitary objective of serving God and executing His commandments.â Dr. Mumtaz AhmadSlide 14
Speech by President Bush, November 7, 2003 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec03/democracy_11-07.html#Slide 15
Political Influences YES, the United States SHOULD force majority rule government. Human rights records among the most exceedingly awful on the planet Connections to terrorism Model majority rules system may lead other Arab governments to take after Could evacuate our troops Oil costs may drastically dropSlide 16
Political Influences NO, the United States SHOULD NOT force vote based system. Against Western supposition could develop in the district â environment of doubt Islam is not on a very basic level good with majority rules system Clash of advancement versus traditionalismSlide 17
Political Influences Take a stand! Where do you fall on the range? Do you concur or can\'t help contradicting the accompanying statementâ¦.. The United States ought to force popular government on undemocratic administrations in the Middle East and the Muslim world.Slide 18
E conomic InfluencesSlide 19
Economic Influences Water is imperative for its shortage as opposed to its wealth Disputes over water rights undermine political connections in the zone Egypt, Iran, and Turkey are the main nations in the locale with inexhaustible new water sourcesSlide 20
Economic Influences Turkey arrangements to construct a progression of 24 hydroelectric dams on the Euphrates River for its developing populace and commercial enterprises that would definitely decrease water to Syria and Iraq Syria dammed piece of the Euphrates River interfering with the supply of water to IraqSlide 21
Economic Influences Oil has made open doors and issues for the Middle East Nations have figured out how to control their generation of oil as a global technique Uneven circulation of oil stores has made a substantial crevice in the middle of rich and poorSlide 22
Economic Influences By 2050 Central Asia will give more than 80% of oil dispersed to the US making Afghanistan and Turkey of key significanceSlide 24
R eligious InfluencesSlide 25
Religious Influences Five Pillars of Islam Sunni and Shiâa Spread of Islam CrusadesSlide 26
Religious Influences Five Pillars of Islam Profession of confidence Prayer five times each day Almsgiving â philanthropy Fasting from dawn to dusk amid Ramadan Hajj â journey to Mecca idealSlide 27
Sunnis-Believe Muslim initiative goes to caliphs chose from Muslim families Support tenet of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman Believe each individual has an immediate association with Allah Shiâas: Believe that authority is restricted to relatives of Muhammad Reject principle of initial three caliphs Feel that imam gives an otherworldly connection to Allah Accept Muhammad as Godâs last prophet Believe that the Qurâan contains the expression of Allah Use the 5 Pillars of Faith as an aide for fitting conduct Religious InfluencesSlide 28
Religious Influences Spread of Islam Fatimids and Mamluks in Northern Africa - Cairo (656-661) Umayyads - Damascus (680 to 750) Abbasids - Baghdad (750 to 1258) Muslim Spain - Cordova (711 to1492) Seljuq Turks and Sultans of Rum - Constantinople(1055 to 1243)Slide 29
Religious Influences Crusades Seljuq Turks took control of Jerusalem in 1070 By 1095, the Muslim World incorporated the area where Jesus Christ had lived Christians trusted that Christians, not Muslims, ought to control the sacred grounds of the Middle East.Slide 31
S ocial InfluencesSlide 32
Social Influences The consecrated book of Islam is the Qurâan An accumulation of practices, customs and maxims of Muhammad is the Hadith Pork and pork items are taboo and considered unfortunate Ablution before supplication to God â washing hands, face and feetSlide 33
Social Influences Muslims must decline liquor or medications Muslims look for absolution from Allah and nobody else â requested through day by day petition to God Womenâs dress - The diagram of a womanâs body ought not be uncoveredSlide 34
Social Influences Some ladies decide to wear the hijab (scarf or cloak) to cover their hair Muslims ought to dependably regard their guardians, regardless of the possibility that they dissentSlide 35
Women and The Veil http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/ladies/Slide 36
Social Influences Conflict in Context â Palestinians and Israelis Partition after World War II in 1947 One of the most persevering, dangerous clashes in world history Root in the memorable case to the area which lies between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan RiverSlide 37
Social Influences Conflict in Context â Palestinians and Israelis Jews need to come back to the place where there is their ancestors after abuse far and wide For Palestinians, the most recent 100 years has brought a long scan for a country after colonization, removal, and occupation.Slide 38
Jews proclaimed the condition of Israel in 1948 Between 1949 and 1967, Israel controlled western Jerusalem and Jordan controlled eastern Jerusalem including the old walled city containing vital Jewish, Muslim and Christian religious destinationsSlide 39
Israel caught all of Jerusalem in 1967 Israel is resolved that Jerusalem be unified and controlled by Israel Palestinians are looking to build up their capital in East Jerusalem Israel has the capacity screen and control go in a great part of the West BankSlide 42
Social Influences Conflict in Context â India and Pakistan Partition after World War II in 1947 An expected Â½ million individuals kicked the bucket in savagery Territories of Jammu and Kashmir stay in question â lion\'s share Muslim Both India and Pakistan have weapons of mass devastationSlide 44
I ntellectual and Arts InfluencesSlide 45
Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture Secular Art and ArchitectureSlide 46
Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture â The Mosque is at the heart of Islamic craftsmanshipSlide 47
Intellectual and Arts Influences Religious Art and Architecture â ArabesqueSlide 48
Intellectual and Arts Influences Secular Art and Architecture Princely cycleSlide 49
Intellectual and Arts Influences Secular Art and Architecture CeramicsSlide 51
A rea and Geographic InfluencesSlide 52
Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate Vast Geographic DifferencesSlide 53
Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate The rich ripe soil of the Middle East drove early civic establishments to settle, train plants and creatures, and flourish The slopes of Lebanon were forested in old times for their fragrant and fundamentally solid woodSlide 54
Area/Geographic Influences Adapting to Land and Climate Mountains have given shelter to persecuted minorities, for
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