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History (1) The main USENET In 1979 Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, Steve Bellovin Script-based programming in the first run through Communicate with UUCP by means of standard telephone line and modems The ANEWS rendition In 1980 Rewrite with C dialect Steve Bellovin, Tom Truscott, Daniels The BNEWS variant In 1981 Mark Horton, Matt Glickman, Rick Adams Rewrite ANEWS to handle more news movement Complied with RFC822 message group

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History (2) UUCP versus NNTP UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Via phone line Store-and-forward bunch Duplicate articles NNTP Networks News Transfer Via TCP/IP associations Sending required articles

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History (3) The CNEWS form In 1987 Geoff Collyer, Henry Spencer Rewrite of BNEWS to accelerate news trade and handling INN (InterNet News) In 1992 Rich Salz NNTP and UUCP support DNEWS In 1995 Commercial news programming created by NetWin Inc. Handle both Ihave-style and Sucking-style news nourish Sucking-style sustain pulls just those newsgroups effectively being perused

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History (4)

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News foundation – News Article Two parts Body Header RFC1036 All USENET news messages must be arranged as legitimate Internet mail message (RFC822) RFC1036 is more prohibitive Path:!not-for-mail From: Ya-Lin Huang <> Newsgroups: Subject: 無法登入 ccbsd8 Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2005 06:36:19 +0000 (UTC) Organization: Computer Science & Information Engineering NCTU Lines: 3 Sender: Ya-Lin Huang <> Message-ID: <d288l3$29sa$> NNTP-Posting-Host: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: content/plain; charset=Big5 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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News foundation – Newsgroups Top-level newsgroups comp, humanities, misc, news, rec, sci, soc, talk New sub-newsgroup will be made inside the first newsgroup when articles get excessively particular New newsgroup creation may need to: subject a proposition and hold a vote. Last judged by news server executives The alt top-level newsgroup Alternative newsgroups Newsgroup creation requires little custom, perhaps done by sending a control message to news server Thread Back-and-forward discussion News balance Messages will be occupied to an arbitrator for further handling

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News foundation – News Server Primary part Receive and send news to and from different news server Store news in database Delete or file old news articles Common news server INN, DNEWS

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News foundation – News Reader Client programming that used to Read and post news Filter news Navigate news string Common news peruser tin, viewpoint express, rn, trn, strn, nn, xrn, …

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NNTP (1) Command and reaction Response can be printed or status code Ex: 2xx means order alright 3xx means charge alright, yet require rest data 4xx means summon alright, yet couldn\'t be performed 5xx means order unimplemented, mistaken Commonly utilized orders GROUP [newsgroup] 211 n f l s group chose 411 no such news bunches ARTICLE <message-id> ARTICLE [nnn] 2xx 412 no newsgroup has been chosen 420 no current article has been chosen 423 no such article number 430 no such article discovered HEAD, BODY, STAT orders

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NNTP – GROUP and ARTICLE tytsai@mailgate:~> telnet netnews2 119 Trying Associated with netnews2. Escape character is \'^]\'. 200 InterNetNews NNRP server INN 2.4.1 prepared (posting alright). ihave <d288l3$29sa$> 502 Permission denied bunch csie.test 211 5745 31503 37524 csie.test article <d288l3$29sa$> 220 0 <d288l3$29sa$> article way:!!tytsai From: <Tsung-Yi Tsai> Newsgroups: csie.test Subject: post demo1 Date: 25 May 2005 15:30:28 GMT Message-ID: <d288l3$29sa$> Xref: csie.test: 37524 Test From Tsung-Yi Tsai . stopped 205 . Association shut by outside host.

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NNTP (2) ihave <message-id> Inform the server that customer has an article Used to change officially posted article Used by news server to spread articles to associate Response 235 article exchange alright 335 send article to be exchanged 435 article not needed 436 transfer fizzled 437 article rejected

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NNTP – ihave charge [tytsai@netnews]/home/hotel/news/db> telnet netnews2 119 Trying Associated with netnews2. Escape character is \'^]\'. 200 InterNetNews server INN 2.4.1 prepared ihave <d288l3$29sa$> 435 Duplicate ihave <d288l3$29sa$> 335 way:!tytsai From: <Tsung-Yi Tsai> Newsgroups: csie.test Subject: post demo1 Date: 25 May 2005 15:30:28 GMT Message-ID: <d288l3$29sa$> Test From Tsung-Yi Tsai . 235 quit 205 . Association shut by outside host.

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NNTP (3) Post another article Used for customer to post another article by means of news peruser programming Response 240 article presented alright 340 send article on be posted 440 posting not permitted 441 posting fizzled

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NNTP – post charge tytsai@mailgate:~> telnet netnews2 119 Trying Associated with netnews2. Escape character is \'^]\'. 200 InterNetNews NNRP server INN 2.4.1 prepared (posting alright). post 340 Ok, suggested ID <d71imt$1fj4$> From: test@test.from.mailgate Newsgroups: csie.test Subject: post demo2 Test . 240 Article posted <d71imt$1fj4$> quit 205 . Association shut by outside host.

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NNTP (4) LIST [active|active.times|newsgroups|… ] List the db documents NEWSGROUPS YYMMDD HHMMSS [GMT] List newsgroups made since date and time NEWNEWS newsgroups YYMMDD HHMMSS [GMT] List message-ids of articles to indicated newsgroup since date and time

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INN – InterNet News

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What is INN (1) InterNetNews Written by Rich Salz Flexible and configurable Usenet news server Accept articles from different servers and store on circle Send articles to different servers and perusers Delete or file old news articles Support NNTP and UUCP innd : handle NNTP approaching encouraging associations specifically rnews : hand articles by means of UUCP off to innd innfeed : handle friendly nourishing articles nntpsend , innxmit : send groups of news by means of TCP/IP nnrpd : handle associations from news perusers

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What is INN (2) Interactions between INN parts innd It would produce NNRPd process for news perusers ctlinnd Handle all correspondences with innd Such as shutdown, delays, newgroup … nnrpd Handle sending and getting articles to and from news perusers

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What is INN (3) Newsgroup db (under ~news/db registry) dynamic List of newsgroups conveyed by INN Syntax <name> <high-mark> <low-mark> <flag> csie.course.sysadmin 0000006093 0000005728 y csie.cp91 0000002005 0000001672 y active.time List of neighborhood creation times of newsgroups Syntax <name> <time> <creator> csie.cp91 1027602994 newsgroups List of newsgroup portrayal Syntax <name> <description> csie.announce [ 重要公告 ] Announcing Bulletin for CSIE

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What is INN (4) history Record of as of now put away articles and Record of as of late lapsed articles Syntax [hash] \t date \t token [064BDA203F2F15D72D49321DEC605D38] 992932846~-~992932846 @050200001C21000002D90000000000000000@ [8A2C8E2CAA8FDE19F315025D3AB04ED7] 992932902~-~992932902 @050200001C2200000B850000000000000000@

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What is INN (5) When an articles is gotten Check "dynamic" document to check whether this newsgroup is permitted If it doesn\'t exist, send to garbage or reject If it exists, keep in touch with this article into "spool" index with a most noteworthy number as record name This number is kept up in dynamic record Add a passage into " history " record Add a section into a clump document for sustaining other website

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Installing INN 2.4.1.tar.gz ./arrange - help - prefix=/home/motel/news - empower largefiles - with-perl make and make introduce

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Installing INN – Choosing article stockpiling position (1) 4 upheld designs tradspool Articles are store as individual content documents and named as article number Ex: news/programming/nntp/12345 timehash The same as "tradspoon", however documents are partitioned into catalogs taking into account entry time timecaf Similar to "timehash", yet numerous articles are placed in the same document cnfs Articles are put away consecutively in pre-designed cushion documents. At the point when cushion end is achieved, new articles are put away from the earliest starting point of the support. Adv: no compelling reason to make records to store articles No compelling reason to keep up lapse Disk space won\'t be an issues Disadv: Hard to control document termination Flooding messages may bring about needed articles vanished

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Installing INN – Choosing article stockpiling position (2) Which is best Transit news server Just acknowledge news and send it out to different servers CNFS Newsgroups that no compelling reason to keep long CNFS Others timehash, timecaf, tradspool INN can bolster each of the four in the meantime

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Installing INN – Choosing diagram stockpiling group Overview Summary data about articles in a newsgroup Let perusers to audit outline data before requiring some serious energy to download whole article nntp XOVER summon Items in review Subject, From, Date, References, Message-ID, byte tally, line tally Overview stockpiling strategies tradindexed buffindexed ovdb Store diagram information in Berkeley DB database

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Installing INN – arrangements (1) Configuration fil

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