Utilization of Penetrators inside of the Nearby planetary group.

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Utilization of Penetrators inside of the Close planetary system Alan Smith, Ransack Gowen AOGS, August, 2009 Mullard Space Science Research center, College School London, UK Separable Impetus Stage Purpose of Detachment Payload Instruments PDS (Penetrator Conveyance Framework) Penetrator Penetrators
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Utilization of Penetrators inside of the Solar System Alan Smith, Rob Gowen AOGS, August, 2009 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, UK

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Detachable Propulsion Stage Point of Separation Payload Instruments PDS (Penetrator Delivery System) Penetrator Penetrators Low mass shots High effect speed ~ up to 400 ms - 1 Very intense ~10-50kgee Penetrate surface and imbed in that Undertake science-based estimations Transmit results

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Typical Penetrator conveyance Spin-Down Release from Orbiter Spin-up & Decelerate Reorient Penetrator Separation Penetrator & PDS surface Impact Delivery succession politeness SSTL Operate from underneath surface

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Why penetrators ? Favorable circumstances: Simpler structural engineering Low mass Low cost Explore different locales Natural excess Direct contact with sub-regolith (drill, inspecting) Protected from environment (wind, radiation) Limitations: Low mass points of confinement payload choices Impact survival cutoff points payload choice Limited lifetime Limited telemetry limit Complementary to Soft Landers for in situ examines

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Penetrator Payload Instruments Accelerometers – Probe surface/sub-surface material (hardness/organization) Seismometers - Probe inside (e.g. Regolith thickness, inside structure, presence/size of water stores, ...) and seismic action of bodies (area of ‘quake destinations, force and recurrence) Mass Spectrometers – Determine essential piece of surface material Chemical sensors – Examine/distinguish unmanageable/volatiles (counting water ice) with conceivable astrobiologic criticalness Thermal sensors - Heat stream, subsurface temperatures and warm conductivity. Furthermore: Magnetometer, Neutron spectrometer, XRS, gamma beam spectrometer, alpha-proton spectrometer, test camera, beeping transmitter, radiation screen

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Key Enabling Technologies Penetrator Descent Modules – De-circle, state of mind control to give a couple km precision landing oval. Penetrator Power sub-framework – Lithium batteries (benchmark), RTGs, energy units Penetrator Communications – Penetrator – Orbiter comms, UHF, low power Penetrator Architecture/Infrastructure – Modularity, Integration, focal processor and controller, strong clock Penetrator Thermal Control - Insulation and warm outline, RHUs. Penetrator Sample Acquisition – Drill, effect scoop, test taking care of Descent Camera – Impact site connection, obliges despin and comms join Penetrator – PDM coordination – Shared assets, detachment PDM – Spacecraft discharge – twist up on discharge?

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Heritage Military Heritage in instrumented effect shots Numerous research centers taking a gander at high speed contacts with gas weapons QinetiQ 1996: Mars96 (Russia/Lavochkin), 2 off, 60-80 ms - 1 affect, each 65kg incl slowing mechanism. Lost when Mars96 neglected to leave Earth circle. 1999: Deep Space-2 (NASA/JPL), 2 off, 140-210ms - 1 affect, each 3.6kg with section shell. Fizzled, cause obscure. Lunar – A (Japan/JAXA), 2 off, 285 ms - 1 affect, each 45kg including de-circle and disposition control. Project ended before dispatch after broad advancement and trials Lunar Glob (Russia/Lavochkin), status vague however may incorporate Lunar-A penetrators 2008: UK Penetrator Pendine Trials, 3 off, 300 ms - 1 sway into compacted sand, each 13kg, showed survivability of a scope of key advances in planning for MoonLITE

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Opportunities Status MoonLITE (UK) Lunar Glob (Russia) UK/NASA consented to full Phase A Kick-off deferred until April ‘10 Penetrators (2018) now being considered as an alternative in light of likely ExoMars reconsider. Some UK Aurora cash now financing key instrument improvements Mars Aurora (ESA) Penetrator under thought in ESA appraisal study. ESA contract ITT for framework level study JGO (ESA) UK planning info to NASA AO JEO (NASA)

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Galileo rocket picture (NASA/JPL) Ganymede Largest Moon of Jupiter Magnetosphere Water/rock surface & inside Possible astrobiology 80km A sharp limit isolates the dim Nicholson Regio from the brilliant Harpagia Sulcus

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Basic parameters mass : 0.7 Moon surface gravity : 0.8 Moon span : 0.9 Moon surface temp : 40-120K surface radiation : Mrads close surface sea? potential forever? Europa

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From Proctor (JHU), Patterson (APL) & Senske (JPL) (2009, Europa Lander Workshop, Moscow)

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Δ advancements needed for Europa… (past MoonLITE) Impact (hard,rough) Radiation Planetary assurance Transmission Long journey stage

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Penetrator Consortium March 2008 – UK just Institutes: ~ 9 UK Members: ~30 July 2009 – UK & European increments Institutes: ~16 UK EU (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain) Members: ~64 UK(50) + EU(14) Plus enthusiasm from different US establishments

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Impact Trial

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Previous Development Status – last March QinetiQ in charge of : penetrator external creation Accelerometer and batteries Running the trial MSSL in charge of internal compartments manufacture :- inward compartments all machined. MSSL gadgets generally created & experiencing testing Other payload suppliers taking an interest. Trial was in 6 weeks time at Pendine. Full-scale structure sway trial – Scheduled May 19-23 2008 5 inward compartments inside of every penetrator

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Impact Trial - Configuration Rocket sled Penetrator

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Impact trial – Payload Mass spectrometer Radiation sensor Batteries Magnetometers Accelerometers Power Interconnection Processing Micro-seismometers Accelerometers, Thermometer Batteries,Data lumberjack Drill get together

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MSSL accelerometer information 11 kgee Peak well strengths in back of penetrator Along pivot cutter Main effect Girder 15 kgee Vertical hub 4 kgee Horizontal hub Along hub: Cutter: 3kgee Main: 10kgee Girder: 1kgee

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Survival Table No basic disappointments

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Real-Time Impact Video

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End http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/planetary/missions/Micro_Penetrators.php Contact: as@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

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MoonLITE 3 Spacecraft: Lunar polar circle, height ~100km, <40km for penetrator discharge. Potential ILN comms join Payload: 4 plunge modules, each to embed a ~ 13Kg penetrator at 300m/s into lunar surface Landing locales: Globally dispersed - far side, polar areas, close side Launch & Duration: Planned for 2014 & 1 year operations Objectives: system seismology polar water and volatiles IS

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