Vijay Gugnani, Karunesh Arora , V N Shukla C-DAC Noida.


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Use cell phones for the most part for correspondence through low-end gadgets ... Cell phones industry is developing at a quick rate, that implies more interest for restriction. ...
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Issues & Challenges in Developing Multilingual Applications for Mobile: Indic Languages Perspective Photo Courtesy: Gour Mohan , C-DAC Noida W3C Workshop on the Mobile Web in Developing Countries December 5-6, 2006 Vijay Gugnani, Karunesh Arora , V N Shukla C-DAC Noida

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The Developing Markets "The speediest approach to escape neediness at this moment is to have one cell phone." - Muhammad Yunus http://www.idrc.ca/transfers/client S/10787612051Harvard_Forum_2003_-_Summary.pdf • Philippines -86 million inhabitants, more than 32 million portable supporters • Malaysia -14.6 million endorsers, populace of 25 million, • India -more than 1.1 billion individuals - versatile supporters - more than 129 million* • Indonesia -more than 29 million endorsers , populace of 233 million Opportunities ? – More income era by Service suppliers through Value Added Services by adjusting content– Culturally & Linguistically Source : http://www.redbusdev.com/bnry_brew/pdf/brew_2005/b602_chhajlani_webdunia.pdf , * Hindustan Times

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Mobile Devices and India 22 naturally perceived Indian dialects World\'s quickest developing remote administrations market with 129.53 million supporters and expanding >>> Use cell phones for the most part for correspondence through low-end gadgets Accessing web through cell phones has as of now started Demand for utility applications & web content

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India cell memberships, 2004-2006 Source: http://www.gsm-3gworldseries.com/india/documents/GSM_INDIA_lowres.pdf

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India cell membership gauges, 2006-2011 Source: http://www.gsm-3gworldseries.com/india/records/GSM_INDIA_lowres.pdf

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Basic Communication & Connectivity SMS (Communication, Services Access, Interactive TV/Radio appears, surveys… … ) Camera Games Applications (Address book, Calculator, Alarm, Clock, Stopwatch) Web searching Mobile Devices :User inclinations

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Utility Applications Service suppliers can contend by offering better applications/content as opposed to bringing down costs. Server Use of Mobile Camera, OCR & Machine Translation to give application to basic conversational expressions

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Utility Applications: Games Presentation/Styling issues Vertical course of action of characters If some string is composed in vertical mode, then written work every character on another line may not be reasonable http://www.w3.org/International/notes/firstletter.html Educational diversions :Crossword in nearby dialects

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Information individuals can utilize Mobile Specific Search utilizing LBS/GPS

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Utility Applications TTS empowered SMS and contacts peruser Predictive Input for quick content section, stylus Talking Dictionaries (with elocution) Applications like Map use for booking Parking space Conversation Guides for visitors to impart in neighborhood dialects

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Internationalization & Localization ? Internationalization(i18n), portrays the act of planning & building up an application, item or archive in a way that makes it effectively localizable for target crowds that change in society, district, or dialect. i18N goes for isolating Core application code from element content containing Culture particular information, for example, content strings on the UI. Taking after i18N in programming improvement guarantees that negligible changes are required while altering for various dialects, composing frameworks, areas. In nutshell internationalization can be seen as a structural issue. Localization(L10N) is the genuine adjustment to meet the dialect, social & different prerequisites for particular target gathering of people. Together these two ideas makes it conceivable to build up a limited form of a product item.

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Internationalize Information ? Web has changed the way we get to data Empowering clients to get to data anyplace, at whatever time through any gadget. There is an outlook change in the way data should be prepared and deciphered for access by anybody autonomous of Country, Culture, Language. Research demonstrates that clients will probably make buys when the correspondence is in local dialect and they invest more energy in site. Web archives are 3-D, instead of perusing these are explored through and through. Scanning Internet content through cell phones is not quite the same as desktop gadgets.

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Mobile Web I18N Considerations Character set and encoding Specifying the dialect of substance, utilizing dialect labels as a part of Mark up, checking program dialect settings and so forth. Taking care of composite messages, string reuse, styling Writing Systems Developing sites running on any program any OS Using models, for example, XHTML, SVG and so forth. Utilizing standard acceptance instruments for conformance check Locale information, for example, dates, designing of numbers, coinage Processing area data for substance show utilizing limited assets Display issues while utilizing distinctive encodings Culture Specific touchy data Local Memory in gadgets Caching, Long URI\'s Access Keys

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L10N: Mobile Devices Mobile gadgets industry is developing at a quick rate, that implies more interest for confinement. Confinement process includes making an interpretation of all content to the new dialect and now and again transforming a portion of the pictures or assets Challenges Number of gadgets : handheld, remote, Pocket PCs, palmtops, palm-size gadgets Relatively new territory Limited Screen size, determination of gadgets Large no of OS Different design of OS influences the restriction procedure Shorter Development Cycles Lack of organization experience Device fabricate offer items as a feature of OEM arrangement Customized advancement process for various usage Users need whole record in their dialect. Testing on various physical gadgets as opposed to depending absolutely on emulator Localization of Installation set up records for each focused on dialect

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L10N : Considerations Identify "Translatable" and \'Non-translatable\' strings Many dialects can take no less than 30% more space, Design ought to be perfect, or else the UI may must be upgraded . Instrument - उपकरण (HI) & ग्राहक - client (EN) Designing GUI according to Size of Screen Involve dialects specialists for UI plan. Exchanging between Language in UI Bitmap/Vector textual styles Grammatical structure in a menu or set of check boxes Same script diverse examination request Different word request Word wrapping, hyphenation Communication Language Avoiding utilization of content or numbers in representation. Maintaining a strategic distance from utilization of allegories which might not have proportionality in different dialects Acronyms, Abbreviations . The same application capacities don\'t as a matter of course apply to all societies. Use setting while deciphering Use area lexicons

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Indic dialects : Layout Considerations Ligatures affecting cursor development Visible length of the string might be not exactly the capacity length Height of glyphs may shift Styling issues, for example, underlining while utilizing CSS Word length may change crosswise over dialects Input technique :Devanagari has around 57 fundamental characters to utilize. Engineer needs to fit these in just 10-11 keys. That is countless onto every key, expanding the quantity of taps.

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Aspects of district Names & Titles -Do not decipher essentially -Sorting by Last Name/First Name -Surname not generally in last -Different tending to modes Dear-Calendars -Hijri, Vikram Samwat in India -different religions where year 0 was not 2006 years back -No truncations being used for month names in Hindi Numeric -area subordinate, not the dialect of use -Number of digits in a gathering (In English and ISO it is 3 while for Indic dialects its different 1,23,456) -Group separator (In English \',\', however ISO utilizes space, and a few regions use "." or none, -Decimal separator \'.\', "," Date and Time designs, -Date separators (/, - , .) Addresses Order of data cannot be altered i.e City took after by State and so forth

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Aspects of region Currencies, Paper size, Weights & measures -INR doesn\'t naturally mean £ or $ when the region changes -Different dialects use diverse size to express monetary standards (INR/$/Rs./£) -Position of cash contrasts (in starting or last) e.g Different methods for communicating Rs. 1000 Rs.1000 OR Rs. 1000/ - or Rs.1,000/ - or Rs. 1000.00 INR 1000, 1000 Rupees, 1000 रुपये , रु 1000.00 (Indian monetary forms are composed with decimal exactness (e.g. 2 digits after the decimal point for paisa) Measurement can be communicated in an unexpected way (kg/lbs) Language Selection -Through banners -Display dialect in which dialect Oral Pronunciation Application has effect when neighborhood vernacular is spoken to

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Cultural Aspects Icons & Symbols Icons that are a statement with a double meaning don\'t decipher A picture can say thousand words e.g. A dust container for dumping records or A scissor for cutting in alter operation " B ", " I ", " U " Some ideas have been discovered to a great degree difficult to speak to as a symbol E.g. Sorting (\'A->Z\' is not all inclusive) Images of individuals or body parts, for example, hands Considered unseemly in a few societies What skin shading to utilize? confined People Images for every nation Icons, images and pictures Colors, myths, convictions and sentiments Emphasizing has diverse significance in various dialects Humor (No funniness is globally worthy) Geographical & natural impacts Customs & conventions Social Security Numbers

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Indic dialects : Characteristics Few Languages offer same script e.g. Devanagari (Bodo, Dogri, Hindi, Konkani, Maithili, Marathi, Nepali, Sanskrit, Sindhi and so on.) More than one script for a dialect (Kashmiri, Sindhi, Santhali and so forth.) Devanagari is syllabic and phonetic Languages are shared crosswise over fringes (Bengali, Tamil, Hindi, Punjabi… ) Ligatures are utilized which have sway on cursor development, del

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