War in The Vote based Republic of Congo.

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US Support as Bulwark Against Socialism in Africa. End of Cold War ... The Cold's End War has Ushered in a Period of Anarchy in African Politics. ...
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War in The Democratic Republic of Congo Lecture 13

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The Logic of War in the Liberal Vision Deteriorating Economic Conditions Zero-Sum Politics No Democratic Tradition of Compromise and Power Sharing Politics Becomes a Winner Take All Affair Conflict in Environment of Economic Deprivation Often Produces War.

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Adding Realism In the Absence of Prosperity and Democracy, Peace Becomes Dependent Upon Characteristics of the International System. The Power Structure of the International System—Bipolarity versus Multipolarity. The Ability of International Organizations to Act as Effective Deterrents to War. Subsequently, the End of the Cold War May Have Contributed to Warfare in Regions Outside of Western Europe.

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African Stability During the Cold War External Colonial Interests and Involvement Superpower Competition Pan-African The Organization of African Unity (OAU) Pledge: Respect Colonial Borders Non-obstruction in Domestic Politics of Other Countries Result: Relative Stability in Africa. Exceptionally " Mearsheimer-esque: " Cold War Conflict Imposed Stable Borders on African Nations.

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Anarchy in Post Cold War Africa External: Withdrawal of US and Soviet Support Regional: Very Weak Regional Institutions Domestic: Economic Collapse—Negative Per Capita GDP Growth amid 1980s and 1990s. Breakdown of State Authority and Transitions to New Political Regimes. Development of Pervasive Conflict. Likewise Very " Mearsheimer-esque: " End of the Cold War Brings About Resurgent Conflict.

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Zaire: The Mobutu Regime Mobutu and the Kleptocrats, 1960-1990 US Support as Bulwark Against Socialism in Africa. End of Cold War Ends US Financial Support. Financial Collapse GDP development negative following 1989, evaluated at - 8.0 percent in 1992. Breakdown of Political Authority Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu waza Banga , or, " The all-vanquishing warrior who, in light of his continuance and firm will to win, will go from triumph to success leaving fire afterward"

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The "Mobutu Effect" Per Capita Income Source: World Bank. World Development Indicators on CD-ROM

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War in Zaire Precipitating Causes Lie in 1994 Rwandan Conflict. Exiles and Hutu Extremists in Zaire. Rwanda and Uganda unite with Zairian Tutsis to Overthrow Mobutu

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Install Laurent Kabila as President of Democratic Republic of Congo. Kabila Alienates Domestic Support, and Does Not Control Hutu Extremists. Rwanda and Uganda Begin to Support Congolese Union for Democracy (RCD) Against Kabila. Laurent Kabila

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Angola Supports Kabila. Included in Civil War with UNITA Mobutu had upheld UNITA, in this manner Angolan Government Supports Kabila and UNITA underpins the RCD

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Namibia: Allied with Angola, consequently Fighting in backing of Kabila. Zimbabwe: Rivalry with Rwanda and Uganda, hence Fighting in backing of Kabila

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700,000 Refugees 2 Million Dead (?) Ceasefire, July 1999 UN Peacekeepers Put in Place (5,537) Fighting Continues January 2001, Kabila Assassinated by Bodyguard Kabila\'s Son Installed as President

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The Role of the UN During the War, Role Restricted to Humanitarian Aid Since the War, Involved in Peacekeeping and Peacemaking Implications for Liberal Vision?

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Bigger Point 1 Collapse of the Cold War Created Anarchic Environment in Large Parts of Africa. Need Effective Regional Institutions. Helpful for Balance of Power Politics. Expanding Importance of the United Nations.

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Bigger Point 2 Mearsheimer Right, yet for the Wrong Continent? In the Absence of the Liberal Conditions Prosperity Representative Democracy Institutions The End of the Cold War has Ushered in a Period of Anarchy in African Politics. Peace Appears to Depend Upon Ability of UN to Act as Effective Deterrent.

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