WATER HARVESTING Rabi H. Mohtar Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana, USA .


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Dryland Agriculture of South Tunisia. Southeastern Tunisia get mean yearly precipitation under 200 mm. Rainfed cultivating is upheld fundamentally by the water collecting procedures. In the event that: rain < 250 mm watering system is vital for harvest productionProblem is portraying the current WHS and survey the effect of these frameworks on the provincial groups.
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WATER HARVESTING Rabi H. Mohtar Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

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Dryland Agriculture of South Tunisia Southeastern Tunisia get mean yearly precipitation under 200 mm. Rainfed cultivating is bolstered for the most part by the water gathering strategies. In the event that: rain < 250 mm water system is essential for yield creation Problem is portraying the current WHS and evaluate the effect of these frameworks on the provincial groups

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Water Harvesting in the Dry Upland Areas of Lebanon Rainfall under 200 mm for each year Poor cultivating groups Alternate products, for example, fruits is being developed as a practical product yet it requires extra water Problem is repository siting to give supplemental water system

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Water Harvesting Classification Water reaping procedures are ordered into: 1) spillover water gathering that makes utilization of overflow as it is gathered, wiping out the capacity prerequisite, as "jessour"; 2) floodwater collecting and spreading or spate water system with redirection barriers called "mgoud"; and 3) overflow water accumulation and capacity in supplies of variable capacities with respect to drinking, creature watering and water system purposes.

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Jessours in the Matmata moutains. A pressure driven unit made of three parts: the catchment range, the patio and the dyke. The jessours are utilized to bank the spillover from the mountain chain .

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Tabias recently introduced in the piemonts territories. The dyke (tabia, sed, katra) is a boundary bound to hinder the silt and spillover waters. Its body is made of earth outfitted with a focal as well as horizontal spillway and maybe a couple projections (ktef), guaranteeing the clearing of the abundance water. It has a trapezoidal shape (length: 15-50 m, width: 1-4 m, tallness: 2-5 m). The tabias are currently broadly utilized as a part of the piedmont zones where the organic product trees (fundamentally olive and almond) forests are picking up larges regions to the detriment of brushing grounds.

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Flood spreading developments

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Recharge well in mix with a little gabion check dam. little check dams or spreading structures for occupying spillover waters. Now and again, energize wells are utilized likewise in blend with gabion units for aquifer revive. Revive well

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Terraces for afforestation in Matmata. developed on soak slants. They are framed of little holding dividers made of rocks to back off the stream of water and control disintegration.

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Feskia or Cisterns utilized for drinking and creature watering. a storage is a gap delved in the ground with a gypsum or solid covering to stay away from vertical and horizontal penetration

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Gabion structures We recognize two gatherings: Gabion with revive well Gabion without energize well

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Gabion with energize very much Based on the working of these structures, it is recommended to adjust the repository framework , which exists as of now in the model. Be that as it may, the parameters must be changed : RES_K (Hydraulic Conductivity of the supply base): Since the repository is implied for long haul stockpiling of water, RES_K is low (shifts between 0 mm/hr (Min) et 1 mm/hr (Max) ). Be that as it may, our structures have an inverse part, to upgrade the invasion of water into the dirt and the aquifers. In this way, the porousness must be to a great extent higher than 1 mm/hr.

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Changing as far as possible Monthly outpouring information (lachures, pompage… ): The information is exhibited as a table of two lines and 12 sections (Min and Max day by day surge information for the month)… . For the gabion, it is recommended to set up an immediate associations with the precipitation Resv = f(pluie). That is when there is adequate precipitation the supply will be full and the water ought to be penetrated as well as vanished inside few days (1 to 4 days).

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The quantity of gabion units to be embedded The Reservoir framework confines the number to one unit by sub bowl . Be that as it may and for our case, these units are typically introduced along the waterway beds with variable separating (least 200 m). =  Multiplying the quantity of units Structures measurement The measurements are factors  Use normal qualities .

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Gabion unit structure

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1 4 Oued 1 2 Rainfall 3 Flow course 4 Functioning mode The units are introduced in a gradoni frame along the waterway (aqueduct). The outpouring goes to the unit downstream … . Contingent upon the precipitation shower (force, volume, spatial scope), one to numerous units will be considered.

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Gabion without revive well similar comments are to be thought about with just a single parameter: The water powered conductivity is much lower . For instance, the normal water powered conductivity at oued Hallouf gabion unit is 180 mm/hr .

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Digue en terre Jesr déversoirs (menfess) Jessours These structures are experienced in the mountains. They could be embedded as focuses (X,Y,"Z") (table dbf) The normal penetration rate of the jesser of Amrich is 120 mm/hr).

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Tabias The tabias are procedures experienced in piedmont and level zones. They are provided in two ways: 1. Coordinate block attempt of spillover 2. Surge spreading

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Direction d\'écoulement Canal d\'évacuation au niveau du sol Bassin de retenu Banquette latérale Direction d\'écoulement Banquette rule Evacuation des trop-pleins standard seuil en pierres Direction d\'écoulement Tabias: Direct capture attempt The framework is provided specifically from the adjoining impluvium.

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Légende: 1 Oued hallouf 2 princely de l\'oued hallouf 3 trench focal des oueds 4 banquette de preoccupation 5 sens de l\'écoulement dévié 6 tabias plantées d\'oliviers 7 canaux d\'arrivée d\'eau (mgoud) 8 déversoirs principaux 9 déversoirs secondaires 2 1 3 4 7 5 9 88 7 6 5 9 88 6 7 9 88 Tabias: Flood spreading The framework is situated by a channel and the surge is coordinated through a redirection embankment (mgoud). Note: When the redirection barrier is made of earth it goes about as fusible; it separates when the surge is fierce to anticipate harms on the developed grounds. Tabias on Oued Hallouf

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GIS Database Satellite Imagery Topography Soil Permeability Precipitation Land Cover DEM Subwatersheds/Streamnetwork AHP RSI/Potential Site Ranking WMS Potential Runoff Fig. 1: General stream outline of the created strategy.

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Level 1 Goal Level 2 Major Decision Criteria Level 3 Sub-Criteria Level 4 Attribute Classes high medium low high medium low Potential Surface Runoff Potential Storage Topographic Characteristics RSI great Soil Characteristics ominous high Land Cover medium low Fig. 2: Decision Hierarchy Structure.

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Sub-situation I-A - Potential Surf. Spillover; high RW - Topography ; low RW Scenario I - Potential Storage; high RW - Land cover; low RW Sub-situation I-B - Topography ; high RW - Potential Surf. Overflow; low RW SCENARIOS Sub-situation II-A - Potential Surf. Overflow; high RW - Topography ; low RW Scenario II - Land Cover; high RW - Potential Storage; low RW Sub-situation II-B - Topography ; high RW - Potential Surf. Overflow; low RW Fig. 6: Main situations and sub-situations of the review

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Waterhsed of Oued Oum Zessar South Tunisia

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348,46 N

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Applications of SWAT to the watershed of Oum Zessar

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Required ArcView topics Elevation outline (DEM) DEM Mask (Watershed of oum Zessar) Land utilize delineate Soil delineate Weather (temperature, precipitation, Solar Radiation, Wind Speed, and Relative Humidity) Weather Generator if not accessible

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Delineate watershed and subbasins

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DEM lattice

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Mask matrix = Watershed of oued oum Zessar

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Subbasin depiction

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Reservoirs are added to the watershed

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Landuse definition

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Soil subject

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Load climate information : Rainfall information Temperature information Weather reproduction information (US information base)

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SIMULATION View Results

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To diagram and guide comes about, we click Map-graph and we select the subbasin, factors and the circumstances (months) …

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SUBBASIN OUTPUT Watershed of Oued Oum Zessar

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Evapotranspiration (mm)

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Potential Evapotranspiration (mm)

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Soil water content (mm)

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Sediment yield (t/ha)

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Water yield (mm)

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Surface Runoff commitment to streamflow (mm)

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Water that permeates past the zone

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SUBBASIN OUTPUT Subbasins 1, 9 and 20

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1 SWAT 9 20

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