Wear t Get Burned: Managing salts in nursery generation .


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Presented at: New England Greenhouse Conference Worcester, MA November 6, 2008. Don’t Get Burned: Managing salts in greenhouse production. Neil Mattson Assistant Professor and Floriculture Extension Specialist. Outline. Where do salts come from? General salt stress Symptoms
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Exhibited at: New England Greenhouse Conference Worcester, MA November 6, 2008 Don\'t Get Burned: Managing salts in nursery generation Neil Mattson Assistant Professor and Floriculture Extension Specialist

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Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient Antagonisms

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What are salts? Aggravates that break down in water 

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How are salts measured? Electrical conductivity (EC) units: 1 dS/m = 1 mS/cm = 1 mhos/cm = 1000 µS/cm old units: 1 mhos fortunately, 1 mhos = 1 Siemen (S) PPM change relies on upon the particular salts you are utilizing normal of all salts: 670 ppm ≈ 1 dS/m moles/milliequivalents (SI units) particle particular transformation (40 ppm Ca = 1 mM = 2 meq)

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Where do salts originate from? Holder media, illustration ECs (these differ by source)

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Where do salts originate from? Water source salt deposits , limestone, ocean water attack, street salt Target: 0.2-0.75 dS/m Acceptable: 0-1.5 dS/m Massachusetts investigation of a few greenhoues water sources (Cox, Lopes, Smith) Municipal Well (dS/m) Min 0.05 0.10 Avg 0.39 0.52 Max 3.14 7.15

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Where do salts originate from? Included manure Example from 15-5-15 Cal Mag compost: when connected at 200 ppm N, the water will contain an extra 1.32 dS/m of saltiness

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Salt Stress Osmotic impacts loss of osmotic angle for water assimilation  shriveling (despite the fact that substrate is soggy) If anxiety is delayed may see diminished development, littler leaf range, shorter plants (could conceivably observe shrinking) Toxic convergences of particles abundance ingestion of Na, Cl overabundance retention of micronutrients (B, Mn, Fe, F) (Bi)carbonate high pH precipitation of Ca/Mg expanding sodicity Nutrient hostilities an overabundance of one supplement limits ingestion of another

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Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient Antagonisms

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General high salt levels Osmotic anxiety Wilting Note aggregated salts at first glance

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General high salt levels Osmotic anxiety Smaller leaf and blossom size Control +3500 ppm Cl +2300 ppm Na

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Osmotic Stress - Shorter Stems 50 100 200 350 500 ppm N 0.9 1.2 2.1 3.9 6.2 dS/m Source: Neil Mattson

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Symptoms of Excess Soluble Salts negligible chlorosis  corruption of more seasoned leaves

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Symptoms of Excess Soluble Salts Death of root tips Increased Pythium helplessness

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200 ppm 500 ppm N 50 ppm Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Snapdragon subirrigated with a complete compost Note poor root development in 500 ppm treatment Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Liquid sustain at different focuses Leaching occasion Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Effect of water system technique and manure fixation Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Fertility and Substrate EC Affects Growth Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Fertility and Substrate EC Affects Growth Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' 50 100 200 350 500 ppm N 0.9 1.2 2.1 3.9 6.2 dS/m Subirrigation Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Tomato \'Sweet 100\' developed for 4 weeks at various fruitfulness levels, was tolerant of salts to 500 ppm N Source: Neil Mattson

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Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts High Salts from Over Fertilization, brought on by overwatering poor waste root decays High EC from over watering Photos: Douglas Cox, UMass

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High Salts from CRF Use media inside 1 week in the wake of consolidating CRFs Carefully measure rate amid blending – hard to right high salts Photo: Peter Davies, Cornell University

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Sensitive Bedding/Potted Plants Calceolaria Celosia Fibrous begonia Impatiens Pansy Zinnia

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Herbaceous Annuals Agastache cana Echinacea purpurea Leucanthemum x superbum "Gold country" Sedum Acre

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EC Guidelines Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/

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EC Guidelines Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/

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Monitoring EC – Pour Thru Example for Poinsettia Establishing 1.9 – 2.6 dS/m Active Growth 2.8 – 4.1 dS/m Finishing 1.9 – 2.7 dS/m Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/

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Short Term Management Options Leaching Example: Clear water application 1x/week vs. Control (consistent fluid food)

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Long Term Management Options Decrease fruitfulness Periodic Leach A glance at compost sources and salt levels  analyze marks Switch water source? (Back and forth movement troublesome utilizing low quality water for delicate harvests)

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EC Management Using Leaching Recommended draining portion for compartment media

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Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Fertilizer levels by attachments Stage 2 50-75 ppm N 1-2X/week Stage 3 100-150 ppm N 1-2X/week Stage 4 100-150 ppm N 1-2X/week for the most part Nitrate based N Pour Thru EC: 1.0-2.6 Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997

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Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Low Fertility Plugs Stage 2 < 1.5 dS/m (PourThru) Stage 3 1.5-2.5 dS/m (PourThru) Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997

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Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Medium Fertility Plugs Stage 2 2-2.5 dS/m (PourThru) Stage 3 2.5-3 dS/m (PourThru) Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997

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Water Quality Guidelines for Plug Production Adapted from: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997

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Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient Antagonisms

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Sodium/Chloride Toxicity Symptoms Leaf edge/tip chlorosis  rot Old leaves influenced first Cl regularly more lethal Foliar connected Cl > 100 ppm can likewise bring about blaze Photo: Paul Lopes, UMass

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Chloride Sensitive Plants Roses Camellias Azaleas Rhododendrons

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Management Options Chronic Salt Problems The instance of high NaCl in water supply Be watchful of plants drying out Blended water, reverse osmosis Adding enough Ca, K Avoid wetting foliage amid water system

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Boron Toxicity Symptoms Yellowing of leaf tips/edges  chestnut Old leaves influenced first

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Boron Sensitivity Source: Maas, 1986

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Boron Sensitivity and pH Low pH favors Boron poisonous quality High pH favors Boron lack Graph: Bailey et al., NCSU, http://www.floricultureinfo.com/

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Boron Deficiency - Symptoms Growing point and new leaves influenced Hard, misshaped, mottled upper foliage Abortion of developing point Proliferation of branches Photo: Brian Krug, UNH

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Boron Deficiency - Causes Petunia/Pansy fittings and pads frequently influenced Low B in faucet water High pH High Calcium Inactive roots waterlogged chilly high moistness Photo: Brian Krug, UNH

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Alkalinity – the capacity of water to kill acids because of the nearness of broke up antacids: Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 , NaHCO 3 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 , CaCO 3 Do not mistake for "Basic" which implies pH level more noteworthy than 7 Reported regarding ppm CaCO 3 (or meq; 50 ppm = 1 meq CaCO 3 ) Typically fluctuates from 50-500 ppm

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What is Optimal Alkalinity? Optimal Concern Plugs 60-100 <40, >120 Flats/Small Pots 80-120 <40, >140 Large compartments 120-180 <60, >200 (> 6 inches)

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Problems with High Alkalinity Rapid media pH rise Iron/Manganese insufficiency Ca/Mg can precipate and excacerbate high Na

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Problems with Low Alkalinity pH of holder media will change all the more quickly Magnesium/Calcium inadequacy Low pH actuated Iron/Manganese Toxicity (photograph on right)

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Crops Sensitive to High Alkalinity Iron-wasteful gathering (Petunia bunch) require a lower pH (5.4-6.0) Bacopa Calibrachoa Diascia Nemesia Pansy Petunia Snapdragon Vinca

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Crops Sensitive to Low Alkalinity Iron-proficient gathering (Geranium bunch) Require a higher pH 6.0-6.6 Marigold Seed/Zonal Geraniums New Guinea Impatiens Lisianthus

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Iron danger Typically from low pH in holder media For water sources with high Iron (>3 ppm) expulsion through flocculation/air circulation Graph: Bailey et al., NCSU, http://www.floricultureinfo.com/

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Correcting High Alkalinity Change or mix the water source water, lake water Use an acidic compost Inject corrosive into water system water Ensure Iron is accessible in the root-zone

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Factors utilizing manure to alter pH Fertilizer approach does not function admirably in dim/cool climate In dim/cool climate plants collect ammonium (poisonous quality) ammonium in the medium does not change over to nitrate (so there is less pH impact) Sometimes ammonium won\'t drop pH because of high lime in compartment media, or high water alkalinity (>300 ppm)

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Acid Injection Acidification diminishes the measure of carbonates and bicarbonates H + (from corrosive) + HCO 3 - (in water)  CO 2 + H 2 O

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Which Acid to Use? Wellbeing Nitric corrosive is exceptionally harsh and has hurtful vapor Sulfuric, Phosphoric, Citric generally safe Cost Sulfuri

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