Exhibited at: New England Greenhouse Conference Worcester, MA November 6, 2008 Don\'t Get Burned: Managing salts in nursery generation Neil Mattson Assistant Professor and Floriculture Extension SpecialistSlide 2
Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient AntagonismsSlide 3
What are salts? Aggravates that break down in water Slide 4
How are salts measured? Electrical conductivity (EC) units: 1 dS/m = 1 mS/cm = 1 mhos/cm = 1000 µS/cm old units: 1 mhos fortunately, 1 mhos = 1 Siemen (S) PPM change relies on upon the particular salts you are utilizing normal of all salts: 670 ppm ≈ 1 dS/m moles/milliequivalents (SI units) particle particular transformation (40 ppm Ca = 1 mM = 2 meq)Slide 5
Where do salts originate from? Holder media, illustration ECs (these differ by source)Slide 6
Where do salts originate from? Water source salt deposits , limestone, ocean water attack, street salt Target: 0.2-0.75 dS/m Acceptable: 0-1.5 dS/m Massachusetts investigation of a few greenhoues water sources (Cox, Lopes, Smith) Municipal Well (dS/m) Min 0.05 0.10 Avg 0.39 0.52 Max 3.14 7.15Slide 7
Where do salts originate from? Included manure Example from 15-5-15 Cal Mag compost: when connected at 200 ppm N, the water will contain an extra 1.32 dS/m of saltinessSlide 8
Salt Stress Osmotic impacts loss of osmotic angle for water assimilation shriveling (despite the fact that substrate is soggy) If anxiety is delayed may see diminished development, littler leaf range, shorter plants (could conceivably observe shrinking) Toxic convergences of particles abundance ingestion of Na, Cl overabundance retention of micronutrients (B, Mn, Fe, F) (Bi)carbonate high pH precipitation of Ca/Mg expanding sodicity Nutrient hostilities an overabundance of one supplement limits ingestion of anotherSlide 9
Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient AntagonismsSlide 10
General high salt levels Osmotic anxiety Wilting Note aggregated salts at first glanceSlide 11
General high salt levels Osmotic anxiety Smaller leaf and blossom size Control +3500 ppm Cl +2300 ppm NaSlide 12
Osmotic Stress - Shorter Stems 50 100 200 350 500 ppm N 0.9 1.2 2.1 3.9 6.2 dS/m Source: Neil MattsonSlide 13
Symptoms of Excess Soluble Salts negligible chlorosis corruption of more seasoned leavesSlide 14
Symptoms of Excess Soluble Salts Death of root tips Increased Pythium helplessnessSlide 15
200 ppm 500 ppm N 50 ppm Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Snapdragon subirrigated with a complete compost Note poor root development in 500 ppm treatment Source: Neil MattsonSlide 16
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Liquid sustain at different focuses Leaching occasion Source: Neil MattsonSlide 17
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Effect of water system technique and manure fixation Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' Source: Neil MattsonSlide 18
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Fertility and Substrate EC Affects Growth Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' Source: Neil MattsonSlide 19
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Fertility and Substrate EC Affects Growth Impatiens \'Super Elfin Mix\' 50 100 200 350 500 ppm N 0.9 1.2 2.1 3.9 6.2 dS/m Subirrigation Source: Neil MattsonSlide 20
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts Tomato \'Sweet 100\' developed for 4 weeks at various fruitfulness levels, was tolerant of salts to 500 ppm N Source: Neil MattsonSlide 21
Cultural Practices that Cause High Salts High Salts from Over Fertilization, brought on by overwatering poor waste root decays High EC from over watering Photos: Douglas Cox, UMassSlide 22
High Salts from CRF Use media inside 1 week in the wake of consolidating CRFs Carefully measure rate amid blending – hard to right high salts Photo: Peter Davies, Cornell UniversitySlide 23
Sensitive Bedding/Potted Plants Calceolaria Celosia Fibrous begonia Impatiens Pansy ZinniaSlide 24
Herbaceous Annuals Agastache cana Echinacea purpurea Leucanthemum x superbum "Gold country" Sedum AcreSlide 25
EC Guidelines Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/Slide 26
EC Guidelines Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/Slide 27
Monitoring EC – Pour Thru Example for Poinsettia Establishing 1.9 – 2.6 dS/m Active Growth 2.8 – 4.1 dS/m Finishing 1.9 – 2.7 dS/m Source: Todd Cavins et al., NCSU, http://www.pourthruinfo.com/Slide 28
Short Term Management Options Leaching Example: Clear water application 1x/week vs. Control (consistent fluid food)Slide 29
Long Term Management Options Decrease fruitfulness Periodic Leach A glance at compost sources and salt levels analyze marks Switch water source? (Back and forth movement troublesome utilizing low quality water for delicate harvests)Slide 30
EC Management Using Leaching Recommended draining portion for compartment mediaSlide 31
Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Fertilizer levels by attachments Stage 2 50-75 ppm N 1-2X/week Stage 3 100-150 ppm N 1-2X/week Stage 4 100-150 ppm N 1-2X/week for the most part Nitrate based N Pour Thru EC: 1.0-2.6 Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997Slide 32
Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Low Fertility Plugs Stage 2 < 1.5 dS/m (PourThru) Stage 3 1.5-2.5 dS/m (PourThru) Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997Slide 33
Young Plants are More Sensitive to Salts Medium Fertility Plugs Stage 2 2-2.5 dS/m (PourThru) Stage 3 2.5-3 dS/m (PourThru) Souce: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997Slide 34
Water Quality Guidelines for Plug Production Adapted from: Styer and Koranski, Plug and Transplant Production, 1997Slide 35
Outline Where do salts originate from? General salt anxiety Symptoms Cultural Practices that cause High Salts Sensitive Crops Guidelines and Management Options Managing particular salt particles Na, Cl, B, (H)CO 3 , NH 4 , F Nutrient AntagonismsSlide 36
Sodium/Chloride Toxicity Symptoms Leaf edge/tip chlorosis rot Old leaves influenced first Cl regularly more lethal Foliar connected Cl > 100 ppm can likewise bring about blaze Photo: Paul Lopes, UMassSlide 37
Chloride Sensitive Plants Roses Camellias Azaleas RhododendronsSlide 38
Management Options Chronic Salt Problems The instance of high NaCl in water supply Be watchful of plants drying out Blended water, reverse osmosis Adding enough Ca, K Avoid wetting foliage amid water systemSlide 39
Boron Toxicity Symptoms Yellowing of leaf tips/edges chestnut Old leaves influenced firstSlide 40
Boron Sensitivity Source: Maas, 1986Slide 41
Boron Sensitivity and pH Low pH favors Boron poisonous quality High pH favors Boron lack Graph: Bailey et al., NCSU, http://www.floricultureinfo.com/Slide 42
Boron Deficiency - Symptoms Growing point and new leaves influenced Hard, misshaped, mottled upper foliage Abortion of developing point Proliferation of branches Photo: Brian Krug, UNHSlide 43
Boron Deficiency - Causes Petunia/Pansy fittings and pads frequently influenced Low B in faucet water High pH High Calcium Inactive roots waterlogged chilly high moistness Photo: Brian Krug, UNHSlide 44
Alkalinity – the capacity of water to kill acids because of the nearness of broke up antacids: Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 , NaHCO 3 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 , CaCO 3 Do not mistake for "Basic" which implies pH level more noteworthy than 7 Reported regarding ppm CaCO 3 (or meq; 50 ppm = 1 meq CaCO 3 ) Typically fluctuates from 50-500 ppmSlide 45
What is Optimal Alkalinity? Optimal Concern Plugs 60-100 <40, >120 Flats/Small Pots 80-120 <40, >140 Large compartments 120-180 <60, >200 (> 6 inches)Slide 46
Problems with High Alkalinity Rapid media pH rise Iron/Manganese insufficiency Ca/Mg can precipate and excacerbate high NaSlide 47
Problems with Low Alkalinity pH of holder media will change all the more quickly Magnesium/Calcium inadequacy Low pH actuated Iron/Manganese Toxicity (photograph on right)Slide 48
Crops Sensitive to High Alkalinity Iron-wasteful gathering (Petunia bunch) require a lower pH (5.4-6.0) Bacopa Calibrachoa Diascia Nemesia Pansy Petunia Snapdragon VincaSlide 49
Crops Sensitive to Low Alkalinity Iron-proficient gathering (Geranium bunch) Require a higher pH 6.0-6.6 Marigold Seed/Zonal Geraniums New Guinea Impatiens LisianthusSlide 50
Iron danger Typically from low pH in holder media For water sources with high Iron (>3 ppm) expulsion through flocculation/air circulation Graph: Bailey et al., NCSU, http://www.floricultureinfo.com/Slide 51
Correcting High Alkalinity Change or mix the water source water, lake water Use an acidic compost Inject corrosive into water system water Ensure Iron is accessible in the root-zoneSlide 52
Factors utilizing manure to alter pH Fertilizer approach does not function admirably in dim/cool climate In dim/cool climate plants collect ammonium (poisonous quality) ammonium in the medium does not change over to nitrate (so there is less pH impact) Sometimes ammonium won\'t drop pH because of high lime in compartment media, or high water alkalinity (>300 ppm)Slide 53
Acid Injection Acidification diminishes the measure of carbonates and bicarbonates H + (from corrosive) + HCO 3 - (in water) CO 2 + H 2 OSlide 54
Which Acid to Use? Wellbeing Nitric corrosive is exceptionally harsh and has hurtful vapor Sulfuric, Phosphoric, Citric generally safe Cost Sulfuri
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