Welcome! Sun and Seasons Photo from http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/bestofsoho.html Created by the Lunar and Planetary Institute For Educational Use Only LPI is not in charge of the routes in which this powerpoint may be utilized or adjusted.Slide 2
What are we going to cover Properties of the Sun Influence on Earth: Gravity Light Solar wind Life cycle of the Sun Seasons Photo from http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/bestofsoho.htmlSlide 3
The Sun Is a star Made of gasses Is our essential wellspring of vitality 70% hydrogen and 28% helium Light (radiation) Image at http://science.nasa.gov/features/y2007/pictures/chromosphere/LimbFlareJan12_strip2.jpgSlide 4
How Big is the Sun? Movement: Letâs measure the SunSlide 5
How Big is the Sun? Around 110 times more extensive than Earth Or 1.3 million times greater than Earth Photo from http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/bestofsoho.htmlSlide 6
How does our Sun contrast with different Stars? Our Sun is a dwarfâmedium mass Active stars range in size from supergiants to diminutive people Stars range from brilliant (supergiants) to extremely diminish (smaller people) Stars range from exceptionally hot blue all things considered (O class) to cool red all things considered (M class) Our Sun is a medium-splendid midget Our Sun is in the middle of - yellowSlide 7
So is our Sun a normal star? Noâmost stars are littler and cooler than our Sun BUT Most of the brilliant stars we see are greater and more sizzlingSlide 8
Rotation High rhythm sun powered turn, EIT 195Å (Dec. 10-24, 1999) Movie at http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/EITdec99/EITdec99sm.mpg At the equator, the Sun pivots once like clockwork Near its posts, the Sun turns once like clockwork Known as âdifferential rotationâSlide 9
Sunâs Magnetic Field Winds up because of differential revolution Eventually structures circles and gets to be tangled Animation of how the Sun\'s attractive field winds up and circles out. Motion picture at http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/dynamo/dynamosm.mpgSlide 10
Inside the Sun Core Radiative Zone Convection zone Image at http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/interior.shtmlSlide 11
The Sunâs Atmosphere Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Photosphere picture: http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/cushion/sun oriented/surface.htm Chromosphere picture: http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/cushion/sun powered/chromos.htm Corona picture: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/sight and sound/display.cfm?IM_ID=191Slide 12
Energy from the Sun Nuclear chain response (hydrogen framing helium) Releases radiation (gamma beams) The gamma beam loses vitality as it skips around inside the Sun It is at last discharged at the photosphere, basically as obvious light Image at http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/interior.shtmlSlide 13
Features in the Photosphere Sunspots Dark and little (yet brighter than Full Moon and large as Earth) Cool- - temperatures just 6,200 F (Sunâs surface is 10,000 F) Associated with attractive fields: one arrangement of spots is certain, other is negative Image at http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/exhibition/top10/top10_results.htmlSlide 14
More on Sunspots Our Sun has an action cycle of 11 years Sunspots show up at particular scopes on Sun Bands of scope move towards equator amid cycle Images at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question17.html and http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/SunspotCycle.shtmlSlide 15
Solar Events Flares (Explosions of vitality on the Sun\'s surface) Prominences Coronal Mass Ejections (gigantic billows of plasma shot out from the Sun) Movie: Six months with EIT 171 (Aug. 12, 2003 - Feb. 9, 2004) http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/171/EIT171sm.mpgSlide 16
Solar Wind Blows charged particles and attractive fields far from the Sun Charged particles caught by Earthâs attractive field Create Auroras or Northern and Southern Lights Image at http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/the_key.shtmlSlide 17
Auroras Electrons from sunlight based wind are caught by the Earthâs attractive field Interact with molecules in our air: oxygen and nitrogen make red and green; nitrogen can likewise make violet Northern lights are Aurora Borealis, while southern are Aurora Australis Animation of sun oriented wind affecting the magnetosphere and making aurora http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/liveliness/Solarwind.mpgSlide 18
Coronal Mass Ejection The emission of an enormous rise of hot gas from the Sun This arrangement of pictures of coronal mass discharges brought with LASCO C3 (May 1-31, 1997) at http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/C3May97/C3May97sm.mpgSlide 19
CMEâs consequences for Earth Can harm satellites Very unsafe to space travelers Power issues Animation of a CME leaving the Sun, hammering into our magnetosphere. http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/bestofsoho/Movies/recon/reconsm.mpgSlide 20
Activities Letâs go watch the Sun Sunspot diagrammingSlide 21
Influences on Earth Gravity Light (Radiation) Solar Wind (officially examined)Slide 22
Gravity Orbits The Sunâs intense gravity keeps the planets in circleSlide 23
Radiation Our Sun (and every single dynamic star) discharges radiation Radio, infrared, obvious, bright, x-beam and even some gamma beams Most of the daylight is yellow-green unmistakable light or near it The Sun at X-beam wavelengths Image and information at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/instructors/gammaraybursts/envision/page18.html and http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/sun.html .Slide 24
Activities on Sunlight UV Man (or lady, or canine, bug, and so forth.) Observations of infrared light utilizing channels and mobile phonesSlide 25
Sunâs Radiation at Earth The Earthâs climate channels out a few frequencies Ozone layer shields us from some ultra-violet, and most x-beams and gamma beams Water and oxygen ingest some radio waves Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone retains some infrared Electromagnetic range http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/ir_tutorial/what_is_ir.html .Slide 26
Sunlight is consumed by Earth Letâs test what happens to the light. Action Time!!Slide 27
Sunlight is consumed by Earth The Sun does NOT send âheat raysâ into space. Some of its light is infrared, yet that is not the same thing as warmth. The Sunâs light is consumed by Earth (mists, plants, seas, rockâ¦) By engrossing the light, we are changing it into warmth vitalitySlide 28
Sun as a Source of Energy Light from the Sun is consumed by the Earth, unevenly to: drive wind groups â which drive surface streams drive profound sea ebbs and flows drive water cycle drive climate Credit: NASA GSFC Water and Energy Cycle http://www.nasa.gov/focuses/jpl/news/effortlessness 20061212.html NASA picture at http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=107Slide 29
Sun as a Source of Energy Plants need light for photosynthesis Without its warmth, the main inhabitable zones on Earth would be close volcanic vents Images from http://nasadaacs.eos.nasa.gov/articles/2005/2005_rainforest.html and http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF/tpf_book/display/4-2a.htmlSlide 30
Young stars structure in nebulae from Small Magellanic Cloud Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/document/discharges/2007/04/picture/an/outcomes/50/Slide 31
Star-framing locale in the Large Magellanic Cloud: http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/chronicle/discharges/2008/31/picture/an/outcomes/50/Slide 32
Orion picture at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/2006/01/picture/an/outcomes/50/Slide 33
Our Sun is a Regular/Small Star Image at http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20011210insidesun.htmlSlide 34
In a couple of Billion yearsâ¦ Red Giant Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/1997/26/picture/a/Slide 35
Our Sunâs Habitable Zone Billions of years prior, things may have been distinctive The Sun was cooler (by up to 30%!) Earthâs air was diverse (thicker, carbon dioxide) Conditions will be diverse later on By numerous records, increments in the Sunâs temperature will make Earth dreadful in 1 billion years or less These progressions will likewise influence other planetsâ¦ Mars? Liveliness at http://www.nasa.gov/97994main_BHabitableZone.MPGSlide 36
By 5 billion yearsâ¦ White Dwarf Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/chronicle/discharges/cloud/planetary/1998/39/results/50/Slide 37
Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/cloud/planetary/2000/28/picture/a/configuration/web_print/results/50/Slide 38
Image at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/cloud/planetary/2004/27/picture/an/arrangement/large_web/results/50/Slide 39
Massive Stars are diverse Image from http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/cloud/outflow/1997/33/results/50/Slide 40
Betelgeuse Image from http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/document/discharges/star/massive%20star/1996/04/picture/an/outcomes/50/Slide 41
SupernovaâMassive Star Explodes Images at http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/star/supernova/2004/09/results/50/http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/file/discharges/cloud/supernova-remainder/2005/37/results/50/http://chandra.harvard.edu/photograph/2
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