What are Quakes?.


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What is the Elastic Rebound Theory?. Clarifies how vitality is put away in rocksRocks twist until the quality of the stone is exceededRupture happens and the stones rapidly bounce back to an undeformed shapeEnergy is discharged in waves that emanate outward from the flaw. The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake.
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Slide 1

What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling created by the sudden arrival of vitality Usually connected with blaming or breaking of rocks Continuing conformity of position results in consequential convulsions

Slide 2

What is the Elastic Rebound Theory ? Clarifies how vitality is put away in Rocks twist until the quality of the stone is surpassed Rupture happens and the stones rapidly bounce back to an undeformed shape Energy is discharged in waves that transmit outward from the blame

Slide 3

The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake The point inside Earth where blaming starts is the concentration, or hypocenter The point specifically over the attention at first glance is the epicenter

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Seismographs record quake occasions At joined limits, central profundity increments along a plunging seismic zone called a Benioff zone

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Where Do Earthquakes Occur and How Often? ~80% of all tremors happen in the circum-Pacific belt the vast majority of these outcome from concurrent edge action ~15% happen in the Mediterranean-Asiatic belt remaining 5% happen in the insides of plates and on spreading edge focuses more than 150,000 shakes sufficiently solid to be felt are recorded every year

Slide 6

The Economics and Societal Impacts of EQs Damage in Oakland , CA, 1989 Building breakdown Fire Tsunami Ground disappointment

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What are Seismic Waves? Reaction of material to the landing of vitality fronts discharged by burst Two sorts: Body waves P and S Surface waves R and L

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Body Waves: P and S waves Body waves P or essential waves speediest waves go through solids, fluids, or gasses compressional wave, material development is in an indistinguishable heading from wave development S or optional waves slower than P waves go through solids just shear waves - move material opposite to wave development

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Surface Waves: R and L waves Surface Waves Travel just beneath or along the ground\'s surface Slower than body waves; rolling and side-to-side development Especially harming to structures

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How is an Earthquake\'s Epicenter Located? Seismic wave conduct P waves arrive to begin with, then S waves, then L and R Average paces for every one of these waves is known After a tremor, the distinction in entry times at a seismograph station can be utilized to compute the separation from the seismograph to the epicenter.

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How is an Earthquake\'s Epicenter Located? Time-separate chart demonstrating the normal travel times for P-and S-waves. The more distant away a seismograph is from the concentration of a quake, the more drawn out the interim between the landings of the P-and S-waves

Slide 12

How is an Earthquake\'s Epicenter Located? Three seismograph stations are expected to find the epicenter of a quake A circle where the range approaches the separation to the epicenter is drawn The crossing point of the circles finds the epicenter

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How are the Size and Strength of an Earthquake Measured? Power subjective measure of the sort of harm done and individuals\' responses to it isoseismal lines recognize regions of equivalent force Modified Mercalli Intensity Map 1994 Northridge, CA seismic tremor, size 6.7

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How are the Size and Strength of an Earthquake Measured? Extent Richter scale measures aggregate sum of vitality discharged by a quake; autonomous of power Amplitude of the biggest wave delivered by an occasion is adjusted for separation and relegated an esteem on an open-finished logarithmic scale

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What are the Destructive Effects of Earthquakes? Ground Shaking sufficiency, span, and harm increments in ineffectively merged rocks

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Can Earthquakes be Predicted? Tremor Precursors changes in height or tilting of land surface, variances in groundwater levels, attractive field, electrical resistance of the ground seismic dilatancy demonstrate seismic crevices

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Can Earthquakes be Predicted? Seismic tremor Prediction Programs incorporate lab and field investigations of rocks some time recently, amid, and after quakes screen action along real blames create chance evaluations

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Can Earthquakes be Controlled? Chart demonstrating the relationship between the measure of waste infused into wells every month and the normal number of Denver quakes every month Some have recommended that pumping liquids into seismic crevices will bring about little tremors while averting extensive ones

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