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What are the causes and consequences of variation in diversity?.


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What are the causes and consequences of variation in diversity? What are the causes and consequences of variation in diversity? How is diversity related to temporal variability? stability diversity History of ideas on diversity and stability Wild speculation- Elton 1958 MacArthur 1955
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What are the reasons and results of variety in differences?

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What are the reasons and results of variety in differing qualities? How is differing qualities identified with transient variability?

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solidness differences History of thoughts on assorted qualities and steadiness Wild theory Elton 1958 MacArthur 1955 “Stability increments as the quantity of connections increments. In the event that the quantity of prey species for every species stays consistent, an increment in the quantity of species in the group will expand the stability.” -MacArthur 1955

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security differing qualities History of thoughts Math opposes instinct May 1973 Gardner and Ashby 1970 More species = more prominent shot of including shaky mixes of solid collaborations - > terminations and vacillations if association quality is consistently dispersed

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steadiness differences History of thoughts The part of cooperation quality Yodzis 1981 McCann et al. 1998 Berlow 1999 “Early information unequivocally demonstrate that circulations of association quality are firmly skewed toward feeble cooperations. It appears to be, then, that powerless cooperations may be the paste that ties common groups together” -McCann et al. 1998 Nature

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security steadiness dependability assorted qualities differences assorted qualities History of thoughts Wild theory Math challenges instinct The part of cooperation quality

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How are differing qualities and solidness related in nature? What can species-time relations let us know about differing qualities and strength?

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Questions? How is differences identified with group fleeting strength? Model How do differing qualities and security covary in lake zooplankton gatherings? Information How is assorted qualities identified with ecological variability? Information

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35 30 Daily extravagance 25 20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 50 45 Cumulative lavishness 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Time How would we quantify strength? Species turnover a = day by day wealth z = turnover S T = long haul abundance S T = aT z

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How do species allotment time… if differing qualities is driven by history ? Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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How do species parcel time… if differences is driven by history ? complete lavishness time Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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How do species allotment time… if differing qualities is driven by history ? absolute extravagance time turnover day by day abundance complete wealth downright lavishness Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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How do species parcel time… if assorted qualities forestalls colonization ? complete abundance time turnover every day extravagance downright lavishness all out wealth Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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How do species segment time… if differing qualities encourages colonization ? all out abundance time turnover day by day wealth downright lavishness all out extravagance Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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How do species allotment time… if ecological variability expands differing qualities ? complete wealth time turnover day by day lavishness absolute abundance downright extravagance Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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Model forecasts: Correlation with long haul lavishness Shurin 2007 Oikos 116: 957

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And the information say… Toolik SE AK ELA Quebec Kodiak Dorsett Lake Geneva Washington Wisconsin 36 lakes 483 lake-years 5,364 specimens

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Daily, yearly and between yearly wealth Shurin et al. 2007 Ecology Letters 10: 127

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Richness and turnover Shurin et al. 2007 Ecology Letters 10: 127

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Richness and turnover Shurin et al. 2007 Ecology Letters 10: 127

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Richness and turnover Shurin et al. 2007 Ecology Letters 10: 127

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Conclusions Feedbacks among assorted qualities, intrusion, annihilation and the earth impact distinctive parts of species-time Zooplankton show scale-ward designs positive connections inside of the mild zone negative relationships crosswise over scopes

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Environmental steadiness and differences a twofold edged sword Abiotic variability can either expand or diminish concurrence Storage impacts versus geometric mean wellness What is the net impact of ecological minor departure from assorted qualities?

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How to gauge natural variability Clearwater Lake, Ontario

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The information set

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The information set surface temperature base temperature chlorophyll an aggregate nitrogen all out phosphorus most extreme O 2 least O 2 conductivity pH DOC + zooplankton species X 10 variables

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surface temperature base temperature chlorophyll an aggregate nitrogen downright phosphorus greatest O 2 least O 2 conductivity pH DOC + zooplankton species X 10 variables The information set X 53 lakes

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surface temperature base temperature chlorophyll an aggregate nitrogen all out phosphorus greatest O 2 least O 2 conductivity pH DOC + zooplankton species X 10 variables The information set X 53 lakes X 1,042 years 5,932 month to month tests

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How would we parcel ecological variability among time scales? Multiplicative model of change disintegration: X t = X lt A t S t E t X lt = long haul mean A t = between yearly segment (X A/X lt ) S t = regular segment (X M/X A ) E t = occasion or eccentric segment

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How would we segment ecological variability among time scales? Multiplicative model of change decay: X t = X lt A t S t E t X lt = long haul mean A t = between yearly segment (X A/X lt ) S t = occasional part (X M/X A ) E t = occasion or unusual segment } Standard Deviation measures difference on every time scale

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The interannual segment

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The interannual segment as deviation from the long haul mean

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Interannual = 0.14 Seasonal = 0.008 Residual = 0.02

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Conductivity has high interannual variety

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Total nitrogen has low regular variety

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Temperature has high regular variety

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Low and high variability lakes-pH

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Low and high variability lakes-pH

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Low and high variability lakes-temperature

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Low and high variability lakes-temperature

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How does variability identify with zooplankton assorted qualities? Long haul mean Interannual variability Seasonal variability Residual (eccentric) variability

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Zooplankton species abundance and mean ecological conditions

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Zooplankton species extravagance and interannual variability

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Zooplankton species wealth and occasional variability

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Residual variability 16 14 12 zooplankton lavishness 10 8 6 4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 - 2.0 - 1.5 - 1.0 base temperature ln(TP) Zooplankton species lavishness and remaining variability

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Interannual and leftover variety are better indicators of assorted qualities normal conditions and regularity less

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Conclusions Diversity for the most part increments with more noteworthy warm variability yet decreases with concoction insecurity Environmental variability (particularly interannual and flighty) are more imperative for differences than normal conditions

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Increasing recurrence of great variety Easterling et al. 2000 Science conception of Jon

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Thanks Helmut Hillebrand Monika Winder Rita Adrian Bill Keller Blake Matthews Andrew Paterson Michael Paterson Bernadette Pinel-Alloul Jim Rusak Shelley Arnott Allyson Longmuir Nor