What is "manufactured science?".


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In the broadest sense, engineered science is the conscious, valuable ... Engineered Biology is -
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Manufactured Biology: Boon or Bane? Scott C. Mohr Boston University Department of Chemistry & Bioinformatics Program MIT Program on Emerging Technologies (PoET) Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center (SynBERC)

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What is "manufactured science?" In the broadest sense, manufactured science is the purposeful, helpful alteration of cells, life forms, populaces – or their significant sub-frameworks – in order to accomplish a human target . It incorporates the fake production of the regular useful parts of living frameworks and non-natural analogs, and eventually plans to make totally novel living beings, both biomimetic and something else. "Why be content with nature\'s configuration, touched base at by once in a while self-assertive and now unessential developmental weights, when a little control may yield something more helpful?" James D. Watson in DNA:The Secret of Life (2003)

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What is "manufactured science?" • Colonization of atomic science by architects and PC researchers? • Genetic designing on steroids! • "Great hereditary designing." (Etc bunch) • The consistent outgrowth of the logical examination of the living scene – empowered and driven by advances in science and sub-atomic life sciences.

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Synthetic Biology, sensu stricto Synthetic Biology is - "intentional building of organic systems...focused on the outline of counterfeit natural frameworks, instead of on the comprehension of normal biology...simplifying a portion of the mind boggling communications normal for characteristic science." - - Synthetic Biology 1.0 International Conference Massachusetts Institute of Technology (June 10-12, 2004)

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Biology\'s Millennium Arrives: June 26, 2000 White House news gathering declaring the culmination of the unfinished copy of the human genome.

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Genome Scorecard First "life form": f X174 bacteriophage (1977) 5,375 nt First bacterium: Haemophilus influenzae (1995) 1.8 Mb First archaeon: Methano caldo coccus jannische (1996) 1.7 Mb First eukaryote: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1996) 12 Mb First multicellular living being: Caenorhabditis elegans (1998) 97 Mb First vertebrate: Homo sapiens (2000) 3 Gb Completed Genome Sequences APRIL 2007 Viruses: 2339 Bacteria: 446 Archaea: 37 Eukaryotes: 26 (137 in gathering; 186 in advancement) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genomeprj

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Broad Institute Sequencing Capability April 2007 Annual throughput: 60 Gb ( > all of GenBank starting 1/1/2006 !) ABI 377 sequencers: 117 Monthly sequencing chemical spending plan: $2 M Time to grouping an average infection genome: 4 hours Viral genomes sequenced every week: 120 Dengue infection venture: > 3300 genomes Bacterial genomes sequenced every day: 7 Fungal genomes sequenced every day: 0.5 Facility downtime since opening in 2001: 1 day

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The Tree of Life Charles Darwin\'s scratch pad section for July 1837

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The Ultimate Archeology S10 – B/An Alignment Color Scheme: blue – polar green – l hydrophobic red – G, P

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Biochemical Unity 20 a - amino acids ( all L-stereoisomers ) D - glucose ATP RNA in light of A, U, G, C and D - ribose Common metabolic pathways etc., and so on. Every single living creature have the same crucial sub-atomic "working framework." We can expect that parts and segments from one life form will more often than not work inside the cells of another living being. This opens the entryway for real activities to re-design a wide range of living frameworks.

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All in no time living species/life forms: Natural Biology

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All in the blink of an eye living species/living beings: Natural Biology Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr

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Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi All without further ado living species/creatures: Natural Biology Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr

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"Playing God" Is Nothing New! Taming has drasti-cally modified more than 40 creature species and innu-merable plants. We are not outsiders to adjusting the natural universe – including the environ-ment. We proceed with the widespread elimination of limitless quantities of species…

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi All in the blink of an eye living species/living beings: Natural Biology Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi All right away living species/life forms: Natural Biology Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in a matter of seconds living species/living beings: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in no time living species/living beings: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All without further ado living species/creatures: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 Synthetic high-M r Natural Products

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in no time living species/life forms: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 Synthetic high-M r Natural Products Polymers ("plastics")

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Origins of Synthetic Biology in Synthetic Chemistry Serendipitous amalgamation of urea from ammonium cyanate by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. End of élan fundamental and start of natural science. • Natural items science – segregation of natural mixes from organic sources. • Synthetic natural science – verification of structure by union E. Fischer, R.B. Woodward, Y. Kishi et al. • Rise of polymer science – plastics to biopolymers.

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in no time living species/living beings: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 Synthetic high-M r Natural Products Genetically Engineered Cells/Vectors Polymers ("plastics") 1970\'s MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in the blink of an eye living species/creatures: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 Synthetic high-M r Natural Products Genetically Engineered Cells/Vectors Polymers ("plastics") 1970\'s Biopharmaceuticals, GM crops Gene treatment MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All in a matter of seconds living species/living beings: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY Synthetic high-M r Natural Products Genetically Engineered Cells/Vectors ~ 2000 Polymers ("plastics") 1970\'s GENOME ERA Biopharmaceuticals, GM crops Gene treatment MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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>5,000 yr Human Selection (Breeding) 40,000 yr (?) Isolated high-M r Natural Products ~ 5,000 yr Isolated low-M r Natural Products Domesticated Animals, Plants & Fungi MODERN CHEMISTRY All right away living species/living beings: Natural Biology 1828 Synthetic low-M r Natural Products Natural Selection (Darwinian) 3.8 x 10 9 yr Drugs ~1900 SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY Synthetic high-M r Natural Products Genetically Engineered Cells/Vectors ~ 2000 Polymers ("plastics") Novel quality controls New biosynthetic ways Streamlined life forms Utterly novel life frames? 1970\'s GENOME ERA Biopharmaceuticals, GM crops Gene treatment MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

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Ever-upgraded Control over Living Cells Random mutagenesis – trailed by choice (1930s) • DNA sequencing & cloning – cells as protein industrial facilities (human insulin, 1978) • DNA combination & hereditary designing – controlled mutagenesis (1978) • once more protein building (1990s) • Total blend of an infection genome – polio (2002), φ X174 (2004) • Total amalgamation of a bacterial genome (2007… ?) • Total union of an eukaryotic genome (2020??)

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Landmarks in Synthetic Biology • Genetic Toggle (Gardner, Cantor & Collins, 2000) Repressilator (Elowitz & Leibler, 2000) Riboswitches (Breaker, Smolke, 2003) Tunable Promoters (Mijakovic, 2005) Artemesinin Pathway (Keasling, 2006)

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A Genetic Toggle Switch Inducer 1 soothes the constraint of promoter 1, permitting synthe

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