Where are we going .


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Where are we going?. Business process ? model ? information base ? report All bookkeeping frameworks have these
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Where are we going? Business handle  demonstrate  information base  report All bookkeeping frameworks have these… BPdocumentchart of accountsjournalledgerreports BPdata modeltriggerdata entryreport

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Traditional approach: isolate frameworks for each cycle Financing Reporting & G/L Fixed Asset Revenue Acquisition Cycle Expenditure Cycles Inventory Human Resources Acquisition

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Problems with numerous frameworks Coordination troublesome in view of absence of shared data Sales  stock  generation,… Scheduling budgetingoperations,… Multiple adaptations of "reality" What is deals—per bookkeeping, promoting, creation?? Excess  higher costs, wasteful, irregularity

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ERP: An Integrated Solution Shipping Customer Order Processing Human Resources Ware-house Inventory Management Manufacturing Equip. Accepting Procurement Data about ALL of the different business forms Financial System

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How do ERP\'s give coordination? A/R Materials Management HR Production Common Database Sales A/P Quality Control Cash Mgt

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ERP and the esteem chain Just piece of the photo SCM Customers Suppliers ERP Product Design CRM Others Adapted from: Numetrix Users Group meeting, 1999

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ERPs SAP, Oracle/PeopleSoft/JD Edwards, Lawson, Great Plains (?) what is being an ERP shouldn\'t everybody be one Configure, acclimate, develop Integrated v. Best of class Be certain to peruse ABCs of ERPs

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Reporting out of the ERP Standard—fare to *Excel* maybe change over to ASCII for SEC change over to HTML for web change over to pdf for distibution … .. XBRL—fare to *Excel* maybe change over to ASCII for SEC consequently encode to XBRL make accessible to SEC, web, pdf…

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Classifying Accounting Systems – sorts (little to enormous) Single Entry Money, Quicken Bookkeeping Systems (composed around A=L + OE) Peachtree, DacEasy, Quickbooks Multidimensional Accounting GEAC\'s SmartEnterprise\'s, Solomon IV Modular Integration JBA Software\'s System 21, Lawson\'s Insight II Enterprise Suite Single Source ERP SAP\'s R/3, Oracle Financials, JD Edwards\' One World, PeopleSoft, Baan\'s BaanERP

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An ERP can make an adaptable, more majority rule association … An ERP can make a various leveled, uniform association… An ERP can reinforce an association\'s capacity to execute compelling business forms… An ERP can debilitate an association\'s capacity to execute a powerful business procedure… Enterprise-Wide Systems

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Foundational units Relational databases Data displaying Normalization Query dialects

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Relational database administers Every table must have an exceptional essential key—can\'t be invalid Foreign keys must be invalid or have an esteem comparing to the estimation of an essential key in another table Each quality must depict a normal for the question distinguished by the essential key—all credits must identify with the essential whole key Each segment consecutively should be single-esteemed—no rehashed characteristics No computed handle All related tables must be associated with remote keys

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Relational Data Bases Consider the exchange caught by this source report:

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Relational Data Bases What elements are included? Asset EVENT AGENT Inventory Sale Customer

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Relational Data Bases What tables are required? Asset EVENT AGENT Inventory Sale Customer

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Relational Data Bases Is all data represented?

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Relational Data Bases What database rule(s) are disregarded?

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Relational Data Bases We remedy these issues by adding another table to make a "standardized" information base Data duplication is limited Note the "connected" essential key in the Sales-Inventory table

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Normalization rules Remove all fields with numerous qualities—the various esteemed items ought to be their own particular table Remove all fields that don\'t rely on the whole essential key—the fields have a place with one of the associated tables Remove all fields whose qualities can be unambiguously anticipated by taking a gander at the estimations of a non-essential key field—the fields ought to be in their own particular table rely on = esteem can be anticipated by Do recording standardization work out… What business rules have you "decided" with these tables

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Relational Data Bases We have made a productive social database that utilizations remote keys to interface the tables:

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Data demonstrating Identify objects of intrigue Identify connections Identify properties of the articles We will utilize ER outlines to construct a REA model to give a very much organized database Semantic displaying—begin with comprehension of business and how forms function to start show Data can—begin with information traits and sort into standardized tables

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Activity to Information Business movement to business data Real business action happens  Identify important articles  Identify connections between objects Identify applicable attributes Build information base Entities=tables; Relationships =table connections; Attributes=fields Capture information from business action, populate database Query database business data No records, diaries, charges/credits, graph of records…

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Future of bookkeeping?? Could prompt to the deserting of twofold section bookkeeping ‑ excess is no longer required to guarantee precision of the AIS External announcing may turn into a matter of database access by clients—See Focus 4-1 (p. 127) Provides clients with effective approaches to get to information without conglomerating and esteeming by bookkeepers. Different perspectives, without predefinition by the bookkeepers, are presently conceivable Accountants must be dynamic members in planning frameworks to see that sufficient controls are incorporated to shield the information and unwavering quality of the data

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Faculty Evaluation "The material is difficult to imagine because of the way that a large portion of it is confident thinking as to future advancements. Why do bookkeepers require this truly?"

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REA Data Modeling "Building precise databases requires a lot of cautious arranging and outline before you even take a seat at a PC." The REA information show gives a technique to planning a database that is all around organized (it makes a "standardized" social database) The REA information display comprises, when all is said in done, of three essential components and an example INSTEAD of beginning with a wreck of information and applying "standardization principles" to build up an arrangement of tables the REA information demonstrate gives us A chance to start with business learning to make an arrangement of standardized tables

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Basic Business Processes An arrangement of Give-Get trades

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Merchant Give Cash Ship Get Ship Shipbuilder Capital Acquisitions What was traded? What was the trade? Who was included?

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Merchant Give Cash Inventory Get Silk Vendor Expenditure What was traded? What was the trade? Who was included?

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Merchant Give Silk Inventory Cash Get Cash Customer Revenue What was traded? What was the trade? Who was included?

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Internal Give Something Resource Decreased Resource Increased Get Something External REA Business Process Model RESOURCES EVENTS AGENTS

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Steps in REA information demonstrating Identify the fundamental trade (give – get) Identify the assets influenced by every occasion and the operators who take an interest in every occasion Combine both occasions into the essential trade layout Add data about cardinalities Identify extent of connections Implement Model in Relational Database: Table for every element Table for each M:N relationship Use remote keys for 1:1 and 1:N connections

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Resource E vent A gent Ship Builder Get Ship Merchant of Venice Model for one occasion in the trade

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Ship Builder Give Cash Merchant of Venice Model for the other occasion in return Resource E vent A gent

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Internal Agent Resource Give Event External Agent Resource Get Event Internal Agent The Basic REA "Trade" Template On the outline, it displays diverse interior operators independently, despite the fact that will all show up in only one table called EMPLOYEES

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Merchant of Venice "Chief" Get Ship Builder Give Cash Merchant of Venice "Clerk" Create the essential Exchange format Resource E vent A gent

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Some exceptional cases Commitment occasion—a consent to take part in a monetary trade later on Purchase arrange Sales arrange Observation occasion—action that is significant for arranging, assessment or control however is not straightforwardly identified with a financial trade Marketing call Computer bolster call

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Step 2: Cardinalities clarify what number of cases of the element on one side of the relationship can be connected to one occurrence of the substance on the opposite side of the relationship In a social database, each case of an element = a line in a table To comprehend this, first truly need to comprehend what every element speaks to Cash Inventory Customer Etc… .

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Now we can display cardinalities Definition: Cardinalities demonstrate what number of occurrences of one substance can be identified with a solitary occasion of the another element Cardinalities come as match of numbers: ( least , most extreme ) Minimum can be 0 or 1 Maximum can be 1 or (N = numerous)

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Cardinality Identification Consider two related items, Receive Cash and Customer For a solitary occasion of Receive Cash, what is the base number of specialist Customers, zero or 1? For a solitary occasion of Receive Cash, what is the most extreme number of operator Customers, 1 or numerous? For a solitary specialist Customer, what is the base number of occasion Receive Cash, zero or 1? For a solitary operator Customer, what is the most extreme number of occasion Receive Cash, 1 or numerous? The appropriate responses reflect t

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