Windows XP Boot Process.

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The BIOS finds the first part of the first hard commute which contains the Master Boot ... On the off chance that floppy commute is in the grouping, allotment boot division is stacked ...
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Windows XP Boot Process 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional

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Booting Windows XP (Page 1) Boot process stages: Boot stage starts when PC is initially controlled on Or starts when Restart is browsed "Shut Down Windows" discourse box Windows XP load stages Begins when boot stage is finished Configuration is chosen

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Boot Phase Steps Power-on individual test (POST) Initial startup Boot loader Select working framework Detect equipment Select design Windows XP Load Phase Load the part Initialize the portion Services load Windows XP framework startup Log on Booting Windows XP (Page 2)

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Power-on Self Test (Page 1) First step in boot arrangement (the POST ) for any PC with a working framework Determines: Amount of genuine memory that exists Whether or not all vital equipment segments are available and working The particular tests fluctuate contingent upon how the BIOS ( B asic I nput/O utput S ystem) is designed

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Power-on Self Test (Page 2) If POST is fruitful, PC boots itself If the tests are unsuccessful, the PC reports blunder by: Emitting a progression of beeps (number of beeps distinguishes the mistake—varies starting with one BIOS then onto the next) Also potentially may show mistake message and a code on the screen

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Power-on Self Test (Page 3) Software that performs POST lives in called the CMOS ( c omplementary m etal o xide s emiconductor) Battery-fueled chip that additionally can hold fundamental setup data so POST can check introduced RAM, number and sort of hard drives, kind of console and mouse, the boot grouping (Which drive first?), and so on. In Windows XP, BIOS no more stores data about gadgets and drivers associated with framework (supplanted by the HAL)

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Power-on Self Test The accompanying screen indicates consequences of test fruitful POST finishing

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Power-on Self Test

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Power-on Self Test (Page 4) After POST finishes, every connector with a BIOS plays out its own particular individual test (POST), i.e. Video card SCSI ( s shopping center c omputer s ystem i nterface) cards which are interfaces that give much quicker information transmission rates than standard parallel and serial ports; utilized for printers, scanners, and so forth. Connectors issue their own reports on screen

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Power-on Self Test (Page 5) At this point there still is no working framework in RAM … POST application in the BIOS is in control Output on screen is in fundamental, content just shape

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Initial Startup (Page 1) The BIOS finds the main division of the principal hard drive which contains the M aster B oot R ecord (MBR) and exchanges control to it: It is the occupation of MBR eventually to stack the Ntldr program (the boot loader program) and pass control of the boot procedure on to it (either specifically or in a roundabout way)

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Initial Startup (Page 2) The M aster B oot R ecord (con.): In FAT allotments, in light of the fact that the boot segment is stand out segment in size, MBR focuses to another area on plate which then indicates the boot loader In NTFS segments, boot segments might be up to 16 areas in size so it is sufficiently vast to store the code to discover the boot loader If booting from a floppy, the principal segment contains the segment boot segment

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Initial Startup (Page 3) BIOS stores data with regards to the request in which drives are verified which is the startup drive (as put away in CMOS) If floppy drive is in the grouping, segment boot segment is stacked and runs the MBR from the floppy If the floppy does not have a segment boot segment, the message "Non-framework circle or circle mistake … " shows up Remove plate, and kill machine a then on—don\'t reboot to evade infections

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Initial Startup (Page 3) Ntldr is put away on the framework segment This is the segment where the MBR hopes to discover the framework Ultimately its employment is to boot the Windows XP working framework which is put away on the boot parcel The framework itself really can be put away on any segment The framework and boot segments might be the same

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Boot Loader (Page 1) Collection of documents on framework segment used to start stacking of working framework Required documents to boot Windows XP are Ntldr, and Boot.ini Other discretionary boot loader projects are Bootsect.dos and Ntbootdd.sys

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Windows XP Startup Files

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Boot Loader (Page 2) The boot loader first switches processor into 32-bit mode Previously it had been running in genuine mode as though it were a 8088 or 8086 machine Next it begins the suitable record framework, FAT, FAT32 or NTFS The capacity to get to any of the record frameworks is customized into Ntldr

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Boot Loader (Page 3) Primary elements of the boot loader are to: Select the working framework to stack if there is more than one from which to pick Detect equipment Select an arrangement Ntldr stays in control all through boot loader process until it loads and passes control to Windows XP piece (Ntoskrnl.ext)

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Selecting the Operating System Ntldr peruses Boot.ini and showcases the Boot determination menu (if vital) Contains working framework decisions, if increasingly that one, from which the client may pick It additionally is conceivable from this screen to press < F8 > to achieve the "Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup" screen (all the more later) Will auto choose first choice following a predefined number of seconds Change default O/S or time in Boot.ini

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Boot Selection Menu

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Detecting Hardware If the client chooses Windows XP (or on the off chance that it is the main O/S present), Ntldr executes Used to gather a rundown of equipment as of now introduced in PC From equipment list, makes framework profile Later will be contrasted with Windows XP Registry passages for inconsistencies that could prompt issues

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Selecting a Configuration Next boot loader chooses a setup Known as the equipment profile If there is one equipment profile, it is chosen If there is more than one, framework tries to choose one that matches identified equipment If framework can\'t make programmed choice, client is provoked for manual choice

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 1) Windows XP consolidates the boot and recuperation choices of Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Provides a few choices to reestablish a breaking down framework to useful state Before clock lapses, or Windows XP bit begins to load, press < F8 > to get to Windows Advanced Options Menu

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 2) Contents of menu may include: Safe Mode—boots Windows XP with just least framework records and drivers May have the capacity to boot into a working framework when a few drivers are defiled Might permit supplanting or expelling the issue driver before rebooting Safe Mode with Networking—same as above however with systems administration segments If system drivers are not the issue

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 3) Contents of menu may incorporate (con.): Safe Mode with Command Prompt—same as above yet not to the GUI environment Enable Boot Logging—empowers or cripples boot prepare, and composes subtle elements to log record Ntbtlog.txt in % systemroot % envelope Records procedure of ventures between boot menu and logon brief which could give signs to which driver, framework or strategy is bringing on the issue

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 4) Contents of menu may incorporate (con.): Enable VGA Mode—typical boot yet with just essential VGA video driver (on the off chance that there is an awful video driver) Last Known Good Configuration—condition of Registry amid last effective client logon Could be valuable if another driver or programming as of late has been introduced, or the Registry was as of late adjusted

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 5) Contents of menu may incorporate (con.): Directory Services Restore Mode—just on Windows XP space controllers, reestablishes Active Directory

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Troubleshooting and Advanced Startup Options (Page 6) Contents of menu may incorporate (con.): Debugging Mode—ordinary boot yet sends investigating data to another framework over a serial link If no other alternative aides in reestablishing framework, may figure out where in boot handle the issue happens Complex data generally utilized by top of the line software engineers—counsel Microsoft Windows XP Professional Resource Kit

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*** Activity *** Try one or a greater amount of taking after boot choices (press < F8 > capacity key amid boot): Safe Mode Safe Mode with Command Prompt Enable VGA Mode Last Known Good Configuration Reboot regularly when done

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Boot Configuration and Selecting an Operating System (Page 1) Controlled through design of the Boot.ini record … Located in the root catalog of the framework segment (for the most part drive C:\) To see the record, uncheck "Hide Protected working framework files" in Folder Options Updated from the "System and Recovery" discourse window on the Advanced tab of Control Panel\'s System applet To Sample"Boot.ini"

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Boot Configuration and Selecting an Operating System (Page 2) Used by boot loader to show the rundown of accessible working frameworks Consists of two segments: [boot loader] and [operating systems] To Sample"Boot.ini"

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Sample "Boot.ini" Return

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[boot loader] Settings: Timeout—number of seconds framework sits tight for client to choose a working framework … If set to zero (0), the d efault working framework is stacked consequently If set to (- 1), w aits uncertainly (this quality just can be set in word processor—an invalid worth in System applet in "Control Panel" Default—demonstrates way to default O/S To Sample"Boot.ini"

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[operating syst

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