WORD BY WORD.


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Journalists started BORROWING words from exemplary writing and science to give themselves alternatives ... in any case, commonly exemplary writing and science utilized root words re-tooled to ...
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WORD BY WORD An energizing presentation of how words come to be

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Dates/Events vital to OE(449-1100) 55BC-410AD: Romans possess what might get to be Great Britain 449AD: Warriors from Germanic tribes (from PD Denmark and northern Germany) start attacks, driving the first British to the "Celtic Fringe." 597AD: Christian preachers start changing over Brits (one of the "social unrests" said in our readings)

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Dates/Events vital to OE(449-1100) 750-1050AD: Viking intrusions (Note that Thomas and Tchudi demonstrate the attacks began in 793) 878: King Alfred the Great powers Danes to pull back toward the North in the skirmish of Etandune

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ME: 1100-1500- - "A Brief History" 1066: Norman Invasion 1200: "Incredible Silence" associated with composed English finished with reassertion of English 1337-1454 (\'54 as indicated by "Brief History"): Hundred Years War with France 1340-1400: Chaucer 1476: Introduction of the printing press to England

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Present-day English: 1500 - now In The Story of English (the book), Robert McCrum, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil augment and convolute our vision of English as the result of a progression of experiences between people groups by investigating the advancement of the dialect as fixing to authentic improvements that range around 70 years (91).

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Three recorded waves "The purposes behind this awesome surge in English dialect and writing lie in the extraordinary rate of progress experienced by European culture amid those years" (93), change attached to the accompanying in the 16 th and 17 th hundreds of years: The Renaissance The Reformation England\'s new maritime ability

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English Renaissance set apart by an "interchanges insurgency" (93) William Caxton conveyed printing press to England in 1476 (Thomas and Tchudi 160) Before 1500, all out number of books imprinted in Europe: around 35,000, for the most part Latin (McCrum, Cran and MacNeil (93). 1500-1640 in England, around 20,000 books imprinted in English (McCrum, Cran and MacNeil 93). By 1600, about a large portion of the English populace had some level of proficiency (McCrum, Cran and MacNeil 93).

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Weight of prevalence With such a variety of authors and perusers, the English started to appreciate words. Journalists started BORROWING words from exemplary writing and science to give themselves alternatives Now an interruption for a straying on the procedures of word coinage, not all of which will be associated expressly to the day and age under examination.

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Historically, English has been interested in the affirmation of new words Borrowing has been a standout amongst the most gainful wellsprings of new words as English experiences different dialects and grasps them. A few borrowings were taken pretty much unaltered from their unique dialects—Latin and Greek amid the Renaissance, however commonly exemplary writing and science utilized root words re-tooled to fill in a clear in the dictionary.

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Some case For instance, English authors, hungry to make their vocabulary more deft, acquired words well, for example, "dictionary" (Grk) and "light-footed" (Latin), and in addition "chronic," "disaster," "thermometer," "air," "pneumonia," "skeleton," "reference book," "clarify," "gravity" (93).

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Latin and Greek were only the starting The Story of English focuses out that Italian was dug for new building terms (stucco, colonnade), Spanish was a hotspot for words signifying clashes (ban, deperado), Dutch loaned vulgarisms (95). French, a hotspot for new words subsequent to the Norman Conquest likewise gave a crisp wellspring of depictions (narrow minded person, point of interest).

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The impact of this was shocking "The significance of the Renaissance to the English dialect was that it included somewhere around 10,000 and 12,000 new words to the dictionary" (95).

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New words come into the languague, then, by these procedures: Borrowing Making a word from one structure class take the necessary steps of another (for case, a thing turns into a verb). Narrowing or expanding

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The War of the Words With dialect so enthusiastic, level headed discussion was exceptional over the matter of style. Which was better, plain Anglo-Saxon words for extravagant imports, regularly Latinate, "plainnesse" or "inkhorn terms."

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Shakespeare\'s virtuoso The Story of English focuses out that one of Shakespeare\'s extraordinary abilities was his adaptability in browsing both menus (102).

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An illustration: Will all extraordinary Neptune\'s sea wash this blood Clean from my hand? No; this my hand will rather The countless oceans incarnadine Making the green one red

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Another ability Shakespeare was likewise eager to make any structure class word take every necessary step of whatever other classification of structure class words: "uncle me no uncle," "he could Out-Herod, Herod," "Master Angelo dukes it well in his nonappearance" (96). Note: Add "change class of things, verbs, descriptive words, and intensifiers" to your rundown of how new words are added to English.

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Occupying the Middle Earth From the Midlands of England himself, Shakespeare additionally unreservedly acquired from Northern and Southern vernaculars: tells or telleth; talks or speaketh.

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Innovation from without Innovation came not from the cooperation of an extending social distinguish however from experiences with the New World roused both by England\'s feeling of itself as a developing maritime force and later, by religious clashes that pushed the British over the ocean.

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The impacts of the Reformation King James Bible—the aftereffect of the prior 1534 break with the Catholic Church, prompted the distribution of a few English dialect Bibles, most quite, the formation of the King James Bible (distributed in 1611), intended to straightforwardness pressures between the Anglicans and the Puritans.

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American English as a vernacular Early European pioneers, detached from Great Britain, tend to show elocutions and vocabulary solidified in time or they exchanged old words to new questions.

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Narrowing or Broadening Corn: in America, implied what was called "maize" in Great Britain; initially signified "grain" all in all Barn: initially, a storage facility for grain Deer: initially, creature Hound: initially, pooch Meat: initially, nourishment Starve: initially, incredible obviously, there were new borrowings too Native American words: chipmunk, moose, reptile, totem, shoe, tomahawk.

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Pejoration and improvement animal, initially implied worker indecent, initially connected with "the regular individuals" Silly, from glad Praise, from "put a quality on" decent, from unmindful knight, initially hireling Mistress, a lady with power

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Made-up words Gas (by the Dutch scientist Van Helmont Electricity, abstract, mind flight—century researcher Sir Thomas Browne Minimize, separable, round of questioning Jeremy Bentham- -

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Compounds Definition: new words made by hanging together two existing words, be they descriptive words, things, or verbs Bittersweet Rainbow Sleepwalk

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Acronyms Definition: These are words gotten from the initials of a few words Radar: radio recognizing and running Laser: light intensification by animated outflow of radiation Scuba: independent submerged breathing contraption ATM: Automatic Teller Machine

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Blends Definition: They are compound words in that they join two words, yet they don\'t utilize the full word, yet rather mix the two together

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A more critical take a gander at mixes we b (1) + log (1) = blog br eakfast (2) + l unch (1) → early lunch (1) cam period (3) + re corder (3) → camcorder (3) information rmation (4) + com mercial (3) → infomercial (4, special case) mo tor (2) + ho tel (2) → motel (2) simul taneous (5) + communicate (2) → simulcast (3, exemption) sm oke (1) + f og (1) → exhaust cloud (1)

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More case of shortening Nark, from opiates operator Piano, from pianoforte Ad, from promotion Bike, from bike Phone, from phone Gas, from gas

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Words from names Definition: Words that have been gotten from appropriate names of people or places. Sandwich: from the Earl of Sandwich Gargantuan: from Garguntua, the animal made by Rabelais Jumbo: from one of Barnum\'s elephants Hamburger (from Hamberg, Germany)

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Words from brand names Levis Kleenex Googled Jello Aspirin Laundromat Crock Pot

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Hybrids from current society McMansion Troopergate Wikipedia, Wikiphobia, Wikiholic Californication (Notice that there are components of mixing in these.)

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Shortening When a short new word is gotten from a more drawn out regular word: aerate and cool from ventilating bartend from barkeep creep (as a thing for a man) from unpleasant analyze from determination enthuse from excitement

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Use a derivational attach to make another word Nouns: er, ment, ness, particle, ity Verbs: ify, ize Adjectives: y, ful, ious, capable, ish, less Adverbs: ly, insightful

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Summary of word coinage Here are the procedures we\'ve talked about: Borrowing Changing word class (the verb "contact" turns into a thing, for case) Pejoration/enhancement Compounding Creating acronyms Blends Shortening Making names and brand-names into basic things Creating half breeds in view of mainstream culture Using derivational appends to make new workds

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