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International Realism.

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International Realism Part II: Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes,Waltz, Carr, et. al Overview Realism vs. Idealism Intellectual and Historical Roots of Political Realism Implications of Anarchy Case Studies Thucydides Thucydides (ca.460-395 BCE) Aristocratic background, military leader
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Global Realism Part II: Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes,Waltz, Carr, et. al

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Overview Realism versus Vision Intellectual and Historical Roots of Political Realism Implications of Anarchy Case Studies

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Thucydides (ca.460-395 BCE) Aristocratic foundation, military pioneer Loses (or is rebuked for) a key misfortune and is banished from Athens

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Thucydides While estranged abroad he voyages openly all through the southern piece of Greece (the Peloponnesus) and narratives the war occurring in the middle of Athens and Sparta Peloponnesian War keeps running from 431-404 BCE Ends with the breakdown of Athenian influence

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Peloponnesian War

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Peloponnesian War In 415, Athens assaults Syracuse in Sicily, in move to pick up control over the entire island Resounding annihilation, vote based system falls in Athens (411) Sparta, with help from Persia, manufactures its naval force 405 shock assault from Sparta on docked Athenian naval force; everything except 9 boats crushed, thousands slaughtered

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Peloponnesian War Spring 404, Athens surrenders Sparta drives it to tear down dividers Remove stronghold around Pireaus (its primary port) Navy decreased to 12 ships

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I. Authentic Overview Niccol㲠Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) European Renaissance Declining force of Church Advancing in Science, Arts, Literature The Prince written in 1513 amid time of political outcast

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Copernican Universe

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I. Authentic Overview Machiavelli & Florence Medici family administers city French powers attack, set up republican government Machiavelli gets part in government, winds up as high affable hireling, some political missions and military operations

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I. Verifiable Overview Machiavelli & Florence Spanish rout the French, and reinstall the Medici Machiavelli is captured, tormented, and inevitably banished to his nation home past the city dividers During this period (he’s in his 40s) he starts his philosophical/political composition, including The Prince

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II. Human instinct and Power “The yearning to gain is really an extremely characteristic and normal thing; and at whatever point men who can, do as such, they are applauded and not denounced; but rather when they can't and need to do as such regardless, thus lies the misstep and the condemnation.” (Chapter 3).

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II. Human instinct and Power Machiavelli the first political mastermind to concentrate on force as positive attribute Simple acknowledgment of the way that the journey for force is a vital piece of human instinct Why?

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II. Human instinct and Power If we need to get belonging, then that suggests that we additionally need the way to gain those belonging Need to perceive that for rulers the investigation of force is essential: how to procure it, how to keep it, how to utilize it

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II. Human instinct and Power “Many journalists have envisioned for themselves republics and territories that have never been seen nor known not as a general rule; for there is such a crevice between how one lives and how one should live that any individual who relinquishes what is finished what should be done realizes his ruin as opposed to his preservation…” (part 15)

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II. Human instinct and Power “for a man who wishes to claim goodness at all times will come to destroy among such a large number of who are not good” (section 15).

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II. Human instinct and Power Indeed, Machiavelli declares: “For one can by and large say this in regards to men: they are dissatisfied, whimsical, test systems and liars, avoiders of risk, insatiable for addition; keeping in mind you work for their great they are totally yours, offering you their blood, their property, their lives, and their children, as I said prior, when peril is far away; yet when it comes closer to you they turn away” (section XVII).

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II. Human instinct and Power So if a Prince or ruler needs to stay in force, he should “Learn how not to be great, and to utilize this learning or not to utilize it as indicated by necessity” (part XV)

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II. Human instinct and Power Rather since we see power in political life we have to guidance rulers on how best to utilize it Basic exhortation, don’t help other people, be merciless, miserly, deceptive… And motivate others to do the grimy work so you can escape accuse

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II. Human instinct and Power “You must, in this manner, realize that there are two method for battling: one as per the laws, the other with power; the first way is legitimate to man, the second to brutes; but since the to start with, by and large is not adequate, it gets to be important to have plan of action to the second” (part XVIII).

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II. Human instinct and Power fox and the lion; for the lion can't guard itself from traps and the fox can't shield itself from wolves. It is in this manner important to be a fox keeping in mind the end goal to perceive the traps and a lion so as to terrify the wolves.” “Since, then, a sovereign must know how to make great utilization of the brute's way, he ought to look over among the mammoths the

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II. Human instinct and Power Examples? Section VII “Cesare Borgia procured the state through the support and help of his dad, and when this no more existed, he lost it, and this in spite of the way that he did everything and utilized each implies that a reasonable and skilful man should use keeping in mind the end goal to establish himself safely in those states that the arms and fortune of others had conceded him”

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II. Human instinct and Power Background here: Cesare’s father? Pope Alexander VI The Pope place Cesare accountable for Florence, and issued a formal ecclesiastical bull (request) approving him to extend the force of Florence What were a methods' portion utilized by this “prudent” and “skilful” man?

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II. Human instinct and Power Later in the section we get one case Borgia assumes control Romagna, however is meeting resistance since “it was ruled by feeble aristocrats who had been faster to pillage their subjects than to administer them, and gave them reason to divide as opposed to unite them”

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II. Human instinct and Power He chose it was important to bring “peace and compliance of the law” and introduced a man named Remirro de Orca, a “cruel and effective man” to administer Then, after the territory was placated, Borgia does the accompanying:

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II. Human instinct and Power “Since he realized that the past's severities had achieved a sure measure of disdain, so as to cleanse the psyches of those individuals and win them over totally, he wanted to show that if mercilessness of any sort had come to fruition, it didn't originate from him [Borgia] yet rather from the intense way of the minister…”

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II. Human instinct and Power “And having discovered the event to do this, he had him set one morning in Cesena on the piazza in two pieces with a bit of wood and a bloodstained blade close by him.”

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II. Human instinct and Power “The outrage of such an exhibition left those individuals at one and the same time fulfilled and stupefied.”

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IV. The State of Nature First state of the condition of nature is shortage insufficient of the great things to circumvent Combine that with focuses 5, 6, 7 above, then we get: “From this uniformity of capacity, ariseth correspondence of trust in the achieving of our ends…” (chap. 13)

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IV. The State of Nature “And hence if any two men fancy the same thing, which all things considered they can't both appreciate, they get to be adversaries; and in the route to their end, which is essentially their own particular preservation, and some of the time their delectation just, try to obliterate, or curb one another” (chap. 13).

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IV. The State of Nature at the end of the day, the lack makes rivalry since If we perceive the uniformity between two individuals then A vital state of either “A” or “B” getting great “X” is keeping the other party from getting that great Creates sentiments of constraint (section 6) Rise of pre-emptive strikes Leads to a “war of each against all”

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IV. The State of Nature Where “war” comprises: “not in fight just, or the demonstration of battling; however in a tract of time, wherein the will to battle by fight is adequately known: and in this manner the idea of time , is to be considered in the way of war… so the way of war consisteth not in genuine battling; but rather in the known demeanor thereto, amid all the time there is no affirmation to the contrary” (part 13). Results?

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IV. The State of Nature In the condition of nature, then: “In such condition, there is no spot for industry; in light of the fact that the organic product thereof is dubious: and thusly no society of the earth; no route, nor utilization of the items that may be foreign made via ocean; no comfortable building; no instruments of moving, and uprooting, such things as oblige much compel; no information of the world's substance; no record of time; no expressions; no letters; no general public; and which is to top it all off, consistent apprehension, and risk of vicious death…

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IV. The State of Nature “and the life of man, singular, poor, awful, brutish, and short.”

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IV. The State of Nature Why? Why won’t individuals have the capacity to get along? Why will the lack lead to this frightful circumstance?

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Prisoners’ Dilemma Scenario: You and an accessory are captured on suspicion of perpetrating some dreadful wrongdoing The District Attorney and the police have been not able to sufficiently deliver proof to convict you of that offense

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Prisoners’ Dilemma We do have enough confirm