Worldwide Neighborhood Interpretation Streams Toward a Morals of Correspondence.

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Worldwide Neighborhood Interpretation Streams Toward a Morals of Correspondence Interpretation AND Social Intercession Global Mother Dialect Day UNESCO 22-23 February 2010 Annie Brisset College of Ottawa
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Worldwide Local Translation Flows Toward an Ethics of Reciprocity TRANSLATION AND CULTURAL MEDIATION International Mother Language Day UNESCO 22-23 February 2010 Annie Brisset University of Ottawa

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UNESCO World Report Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialog ‹› Study of world interpretation streams & hones UNESCO/IATIS association Research Question: Does interpretation add to social differing qualities ?

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Selection criteria Representative l anguage circumstances official minority indigenous transborder dialects multilingual states Geographic appropriation: Africa , Americas, Arabic world, Asia-Pacific, India, Central & Eastern Europe

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Objectives Update measurements (Heilbronn: 1999) Identify examples and patterns Asymmetries and issue territories ? New or inventive practices ? Proposals/Future approaches

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Sources - Unesco Index Translationum - Other (e.g. national book focuses) Translation streams Intranslations (from remote dialects) Extranslations (into outside dialects) - Internal interpretations (e.g. inside multilanguage states)

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Index Translationum Cumulative book index of distributed transl. from 1979 to Nov. 2007 – last accessible overhaul at time of study Data begin from around 100 part states ~ 1, 700, 000 passages [translated books] ~ 250, 000 writers ~ 800 dialects enlisted out of existing 6,000

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SOURCE LANGUAGES (SL) in connection to every enrolled interpretation Top 20 SL = 96% Other dialects = 4%

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16 of main 20 source dialects are European 75% of all books are deciphered from 3 dialects: English, French, German English : source dialect of 55 % of all transl.

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Top Target Languages (TL) Top 20 TL add up to almost 90% of all transl. 18 are European dialects + Japanese, Korean Top 5 TL represent half of all interpretations 40% of all books are deciphered into 3 dialects 6.4% into English [ 55% from English ] 6.1% into Japanese Arabic and Chinese missing from main 20

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Cultural assorted qualities through interpretation ?

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Translation: An obstruction to social differing qualities? 2 contextual analyses Minority dialects and literary works Indigenous dialects

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1. Minority Literatures in Translation The instance of Azerbaijan One of the previous Transcaucasian Soviet Republics At junction of Eastern Europe & Southwest Asia Borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran Bounded by Caspian Sea toward the East Capital : Baku Exclave : Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic situated in Armenia, outskirts with Iran and Turkey

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Impact of History : 4 unique scripts Arabic until 1926 Latin script in 1926 Cyrillic in 1939 (Stalin’s reconciliation arrangement) Latin script restored in 1991

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AZ Contemporary History of Translation 3 periods : Pre-Soviet, Soviet, Post-Soviet Predominance of interpretation into Azerbaijani AZ dialect & writing minimal known outside the nation Lack of remote specialists inspired by + fit for making an interpretation of from AZ into their own dialect Lack of State strategy & financing to bolster interpretation & production of AZ works abroad

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Pre-Soviet period Translations from AZ into remote dialects Mostly in the 19 th century : Orientalist development Main works deciphered: initially written in Persian -legends ( Book of Dede Korkut , 8 th c., Koroghlu ) - verse ( Gulist a, 13 th c.) & people stories Nizami ( 12 th c. writer, writer of Leila and Majnun ) Main target dialects: German, Russian, Engl., Fr., Polish

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Pre-Soviet Period Translations into Azerbaijani Early AZ interpretations of extraordinary Persian artists (e.g. Khayyam, Sa’di, Hafiz) Interest in interpretation from Western dialects began in the 19 th c. Russian: prevailing source dialect Russian authors (strikingly Pushkin, Lermontov) essentially chose for interpretation

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Soviet period (1920-1991) Translations from Azerbaijani Few & for the most part into Russian or through Russian + into different dialects of the Soviet Union Lack of outside interpreters with charge of Azerbaijani Russian interpretations were utilized as source messages Some of the most unmistakable AZ journalists wrote in Russian

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Soviet period (1920-1991) Translations into Azerbaijani Intensive & arranged by Soviets -Translations requested and paid by State -Controlled access to remote works Mostly Russian works or Indirect transl. (from Russian adaptations utilized as source writings) Mostly abstract + experimental or instructive

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End of Soviet period to present Active part of Universities & Translation Centers Direct interpretations of Nobel prize writers + classics Translation diaries gave to world writing Unilingual and bilingual word references Editorial & printing exercises Khazar U. : national place for ISBN enlistment

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Most interpretations are into Azerbaijani Increasingly from English Other prevailing source dialects: Russian German, French Arabic, Persian, Turkish dialects of neighboring (previous USSR) nations

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Challenges Direct interpretation and production of works agent : of old and advanced world writing , with exceptional accentuation on youth writing of works illustrative of cutting edge thought (humanities & sociologies) to which get to was denied under the Soviet administration Copyright : budgetary test Codification of AZ dialect : content database

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An Ethics of Reciprocity ? Interpreting & distributed abroad the works of cutting edge creators of minority dialects : Foreign interpretations : few and indiscriminate Mostly self-interpretations : local dialect quality at issue Local production & course : zero ability to see abroad = Need for worldwide participation, e.g.: through Western system of interpretation focuses interpretation/modification organizations, bargain interpretations specialized backing for content database (dialect codification, wording improvement) associations for the preparation of interpreters & coaches, and so forth

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Case study 2 Aboriginal dialects in a multi-dialect state: Canada More than 65 local dialects 11 dialect bunches 3 overwhelming gatherings : Athapascan, Algonquian, Iroquoian Only 3 dialects have enough familiar speakers to survive: Cree (100,000), Inuktitut (36,000), Ojibway (32,000) Less than 1% of Canadians (~ 250,000) can talk a local lang. About half (~ 130,000) utilize a local dialect every day

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Lingering impacts of chronicled generalizations Aboriginals: Only gathering in Canada whose personality is characterized by law Royal Proclamation, 1763 “savage tribes”, “savage nations” “sauvage : se dit de certains peuples qui vivent ordinairement dans les bois, presque sans religion, sans loi, sans residence fixe & plutã\'t en bãªtes qu’en homme” ( Dictionnaire de l’Académie , 1762)

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British North America Act, 1867 Creates the Dominion of Canada 2 establishing people groups : French & British 2 official dialects: French & English Aboriginals and their properties: diminished to “matters” subjected to fedreal enactment, as “savings” or “traffic regulation”

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Acte des Sauvages, 1876 “espã¨ce d’animal unable de authority aux autres” [...] “ne possã¨de ni horticulture ni troupeau” ( Dictionnaire Littrã© , 1873) “a man of great, pitiless, fierce pitilessness; a brute [...] without manners” ( Imperial Dictionary , 1898) “a individual from a race or tribe in the most minimal phase of advancement or cultivation” ( Century Dictionary , 1900) Only in 1951 would the Acte des Sauvages be renamed Loi sur les Indiens

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Canadian dialect approaches: commonplace & regional level Native dialects have official status in just 2 domains : Nunavut: Inuktitut North West Territories : 9 (Cree, Ojibway, Inuktitut...) But none are vehicular in government However: Laws are just tying in English & French Services are all around accessible in English

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Canadian dialect strategies elected level No elected acknowledgment of native dialects Proposed Aboriginal Languages Act (1997) never received No changeless subsidizing No dialect foundations similar to those current for authority [colonial] dialects (e.g. Agency for Translation, Terminology information bank...) Language advancement left to commonplace/regional or singular activities (e.g. To start with Voices advanced files; showing materials, dictionaries...)

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A morals of correspondence ? Guarantee measure up to dialect rights in instruction, restorative and legitimate administrations (through an Aboriginal Languages Act) Extend to local dialects the ability obtained in the advance

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