Youthful Drivers II: Research Solutions .


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Why Are Teens SO Over-spoke to? DevelopmentSolutions. Why Are TeensSO Overrepresented?. Youthful Driver Crash Risk. Driver Characteristics. Social Environment. Driver Behaviors (Unsafe). Driving Environment. Crash. . . . . . . Accident danger is controlled by an assortment of elements that are all interrelated. This makes it hard to pinpoint particular, disengaged reasons for crashes. .
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Youthful Drivers II : Research & Solutions Washington Teen Driving Task Force Olympia, WA September 9, 2009

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Why Are Teens SO Over-spoken to? Advancement Solutions

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Why Are Teens SO Overrepresented?

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Young Driver Crash Risk Driver Characteristics Driver Behaviors (Unsafe) Crash Social Environment Driving Environment Crash hazard is dictated by an assortment of variables that are altogether interrelated. This makes it hard to pinpoint particular, disengaged reasons for crashes. Source: Shope & Bingham (2003)

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Research demonstrates that teenagers… Drive with littler holes between vehicles (along these lines more backside crashes) (Gregersen & Bjurulf; Williams, Ferguson, & Shope) Use safety belts less frequently (Engstrom, et al.; Gregersen & Bjurulf; Masten) Are included in more single-auto accidents (Engstrom, et al.; Gregersen; Ulmer, Williams, & Preusser) Are overrepresented in evening time and end of the week impacts. (Engstrom, et al.; Gregersen; Gregersen & Berg; IIHS; Ulmer, et al.) will probably be to blame in a crash (IIHS; Kim, Li, Richardson, & Nitz; Ulmer, et al.) be speeding (Engstrom, et al.; Gregersen; Gregersen & Bjurulf; IIHS; Masten; Williams, et al.) gather moving infringement (Ulmer, et al.) convey high school travelers (Ulmer, et al.) abuse signs and flags (Masten, Williams, et al.) surpass vehicles in a dangerous way (Masten, Williams, et al.) neglect to respect people on foot (Masten, Williams, et al.)

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But Why? Inability Immaturity ( Development )  These components interface with each other!

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Inexperience insufficient time in the driver\'s seat Teens overestimate driving aptitude Teens think little of impact dangers A BAD Combination(!) that prompts to: Reduced peril discernment Slower response time Underdeveloped vehicle moving and visual checking abilities These variables support crash hazard!

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INEXPERIENCE Cooper, Pinili, & Chen (1995) took a gander at drivers ages 16-55. Crash rates for every new driver were most prominent amid the 1 st year of licensure. 16-20 year olds had the most astounding to blame impact rate amid the 1 st year of licensure. As age expanded for amateur drivers, beginning crash hazard diminished.

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Novice Drivers Novice drivers in each age gathering are at hoisted chance for a crash in the initial 6 months of licensure – yet youngsters considerably more so ! [ Mayhew, Simpson, & Pak (2003); McCartt, Shabanova, & Leaf (2003); Cooper, Pinili, & Chen (1995) ] . Along these lines, age (i.e., development) and experience are imperative variables that harmonize to decide driver crash chance.

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Mental Workload Driving is a complex, rationally requesting errand, requiring more elevated amount psychological, perceptual, & engine abilities. After some time, the driving undertaking turns out to be more \'programmed\', diminishing the workload requests on the mind (Mourant & Rockwell; Quimby & Watts).

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Mental Workload (cont\'d) "These outcomes [visual filtering studies] demonstrate that the initial few circumstances in the driver\'s seat the greater part of the data handling limit is caught up in just keeping up the auto\'s position in the path. As experience is increased, fringe vision is utilized more to find the vehicle in the path, with obsessions concentrated further not far off to permit more opportunity to process data that is the fate of expanding importance as the vehicle\'s speed builds." (L. Evans)

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Visual Scanning Young drivers are less ready to check more extensive ranges on the roadway than more seasoned drivers. look nearer to the front of the vehicle and to the correct concentrate on keeping the vehicle in the path With expanded involvement, drivers are better ready to center eye obsessions, depend on fringe signals, and sweep more extensive zones. (Masten, 2004; Evans, 1991).

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Scanning (cont\'d) "The relative ineffectualness of filtering examples of the fledgling drivers likely records for Summala and Naatanen\'s [1974] finding that, notwithstanding when particularly educated to focus on street signs, unpracticed drivers miss essentially a bigger number of signs than experienced drivers. Cocoa [1982] reports that youthful drivers are moderately poor at distinguishing inaccessible perils, despite the fact that they contrast well and more seasoned drivers in recognizing close risks." (L. Evans)

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Brain Development PreFrontal cortex (PFC) improvement proceeds into our mid-20\'s. This projection is in charge of (among different capacities): Motor control Problem explaining/judgment Impulse control Memory Language

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Brain Development (proceeded with) Eby & Molnar (1998) Short-term memory keeps on creating until age 17, in charge of "basic leadership, thinking, or comprehension an activity security message." Ability to channel consideration and to focus for drawn out stretches of time grows encourage amid the ages 16-20.

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Where is the PFC?

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RECENT FINDINGS Giedd et al (1999) and Sowell et al (1999) MRI ponders affirm that juvenile mental health may lie behind the practices generally watched in regards to teenager drivers, i.e., hazard taking Two influxes of incredible cortical development – early youth (0-3 years) and pre-immaturity (10-13) years

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RECENT FINDINGS (cont\'d) Three year-old cerebrum has a greater number of neurons than grown-up mind (~100 billion), with irregular development of thick synaptic systems ( > grown-ups) trailed by "pruning" ("utilize it or lose it") Pre-pre-adult brains experience restored synaptogenesis, particularly in the PFC, trailed by pruning toward the finish of adolescence

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RECENT FINDINGS (cont\'d) During the early phases of pubescence, the amygdala (some portion of limbic framework that intervenes such feelings as dread ) assumes control official capacities ordinarily accepted by PFC (attributable to fast pruning and myelinization in PFC) At this stage, then, young people are , in a genuine sense, "considering" with their feelings !!

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RECENT FINDINGS (cont\'d) Winter (2008): "Amid youth, the mind grows an unnecessary number of associations between cerebrum cells. At about year 11 or 12, a youngster starts to lose or \'prune back\' a considerable portion of these associations. This misfortune is solid over the long haul and is a crucial piece of growing up. The pruning procedure gets out unneeded wiring to clear a path for more effective and quicker data handling as we get to be grown-ups. Furthermore, it advances fabricating the long chains of nerve cells that are required for the all the more requesting critical thinking of adulthood. What\'s more, the pruning procedure seems to take after the guideline of \'utilization it-or-lose-it,\' as per specialists. In this way, neural associations or hardware that gets practiced as we grow up are held, while the associations that are not initiated or utilized, escape. Dr. Giedd alludes to this procedure along these lines: \'Incapable or feeble associations are pruned similarly a planter would prune a tree or bramble, giving the plant the craved shape\'."

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Winter (cont\'d) "This mind development has a tendency to happen from the back of the cerebrum to the front. So the front district of the cerebrum, known as the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of abnormal state thinking and basic leadership, does not turn out to be completely develop until around the right on time to mid 20s. "The prefrontal cortex is the piece of the mind that empowers a man to think obviously, to use sound judgment and to control motivations. It is basically in charge of how much need to give approaching messages like \'Do this now\' versus \'Hold up! Shouldn\'t something be said about the outcomes?\' Because the passionate, \'Do this now\' districts, transcendently situated behind the front of the mind, have advanced with the pruning procedure, it is troublesome for the "Hold up" some portion of the cerebrum to apply much impact. As Psychologist Laurence Steinberg sees it, an adolescent\'s mind \'has a very much created quickening agent however just an incompletely created brake\'."

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RECENT FINDINGS (cont\'d) Teens may likewise be more attracted to jolt chasing and hazardous practices on account of various tangible discernment and social-improvement needs than grown-ups Less defenseless to familiarity with liquor or medication impacts than grown-ups More influenced by and attracted to companion collaborations Alcohol/drugs diminish social hindrances more intensely for high schoolers than for grown-ups

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RECENT FINDINGS: SUM Thus, chance taking, boost chasing, and peer-driven conduct of youngsters is capably determined by formative occasions in the PFC.

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Part Two Possible Solutions Intermediate Driver Licensing (IDL) Traffic Safety Education Parental Involvement

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Intermediate Driver Licensing (IDL)

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IDL Research National Safety Council (2003). 12 contemplate survey diminishment in high schooler impact rates of 33% Hartling, et al. (2006). 13 contemplate survey for 16 year-olds, impact rates diminished by 31%

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IDL in Washington Learner Phase-6 months 50 hours of directed practice (10 around evening time), pass TSE course, clean driving record Intermediate License First 6 months, no travelers under 20, next 6 months, just 3 travelers under 20 Cannot drive from 1:00 AM to 5:00 AM Full permit ( at age 18 can get a full permit without IDL)

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Has IDL Worked in Washington? YES! Also, now a gander at the information…

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The Future Need to change the IDL confinements Nighttime limitations beginning at 9:00 or 10:00 PM Allow just a single traveler under 20 Extend the temporary stage until age 18 Source: IIHS (2005)- rules for an ideal GDL framework Overall, IDL has had any kind of effect and should be kept up in WA to address the teenager driver issue!

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Traffic Safety Education Lack of proof demonstrating constructive outcomes of conventional activity wellbeing training educational program. New Curricula Show Promise! Europe-Project GADGET Oregon State .:tslide

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