Fetched Allocation: Service Department Costs and Joint Product Costs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fetched Allocation: Service Department Costs and Joint Product Costs

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Fetched Allocation: Service Department Costs and Joint Product Costs

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  1. Chapter Twelve Cost Allocation:Service Department Costs and Joint Product Costs

  2. Learning Objectives • Identify the strategic role of cost allocation • Explain the ethical issues of cost allocation • Use three methods for allocating service department costs to production departments • Explain problems in implementing each of the three departmental cost allocation methods

  3. Learning Objectives (continued) • Explain the use of cost allocation in service firms • Use the three methods for allocating joint product costs • Understand alternative methods to account for by-products associated with a joint production process

  4. The Strategic Role of Cost Allocation • Determine accurate departmental and product costs as a basis for evaluating the cost efficiency of departments and the profitability of different products • Motivate managers to exert a high level of effort to achieve the goals of top management • Provide the right incentive for managers to make decisions that are consistent with the goals of top management

  5. The Strategic Role of Cost Allocation (continued) • Fairly determine the rewards earned by managers for their effort and skill and for the effectiveness of their decision-making • The most objective basis for cost allocation exists when a cause-and-effect relationship can be determined, such as the relationship between machine breakdowns and maintenance costs • Other alternatives exist in the absence of cause-and-effect relationships, such as ability-to-bear and benefit received

  6. Overhead Allocations: Three General Approaches Three general approaches for allocating overhead costs to products: • The direct approach allocates overhead from a single cost pool • The departmental approach allocates overhead to production departments, and then from production departments to products • The activity-based approach allocates overhead to production activities, and then from production activities to products

  7. The Departmental Approach The departmental approach classifies manufacturing departments into production and service departments This approach involves three phases: • Trace all direct overhead costs and allocate common overhead costs to both the various production and service departments • Allocate the service department costs to the production departments • Allocate production department costs to products

  8. Departmental Approach Example Beary Company manufactures two products and has two production departments (P-1 and P-2) and two service departments (S-1 and S-2). Beary uses both labor-hours and machine-hours for allocating indirect manufacturing costs. Not Traceable

  9. Departmental Approach: Phase 1

  10. Departmental Approach: Phase 2 Phase 2, allocation of service department costs: whether, and to what extent, reciprocal cost flows are recognized? Three methods are used to allocate service department costs: • The direct method • The step method • The reciprocal (i.e., simultaneous equations) method

  11. Phase 2: Direct Method

  12. Phase 3: Direct Method

  13. Phase 2: Step Method

  14. Phase 3: Step Method

  15. Key Implementation Issues • Choosing the most accurate method is key • Wide variations can occur in the product allocation amounts • Determining an appropriate allocation base and a percentage amount for service provided by the service departments is often difficult • Often firms have difficulty distinguishing fixed and variable costs • Ideally, firms would use dual allocation, which separates variable and fixed costs and traces the variable costs directly to the departments that caused the cost

  16. Key Implementation Issues (continued) • Using budgeted vs. actual amounts? • Budgeted or predetermined amounts can be more difficult to determine but are more motivating for the allocation of fixed costs • Using predetermined amounts makes fixed costs more predictable and less dependent upon the usage of other departments • Allocated costs can exceed external purchase cost • Occasionally the cost a department is allocated exceeds the cost of purchasing that service from an outside supplier

  17. Joint Product Costing • Some manufacturing plants yield more than one product from a common resource input; this is called a “joint production process” • Joint products are products from a joint production process that have relatively substantial sales values • Products whose total sales values are minor in comparison to the sales value of the joint products are classified as by-products

  18. Joint Product Costing (continued) • Joint products and by-products start their manufacturing life as part of the same raw material, so up until a certain point, no distinction can be made between the products • The point in a joint production process at which individual products can be identified for the first time is called the split-off point • Joint costs include all manufacturing costs incurred prior to the split-off point

  19. Joint Product Costing (continued) • Costs incurred after the split-off point are called additional processing costs or separable costs • Three methods are commonly used to allocate joint product costs • Relative physical units (measures) produced • Relative sales values of the products • Relative net realizable values (NRV) of the products

  20. Cost Allocation Based on Relative Physical Units • The physical units method uses a physical measure such as pounds, gallons, or yards or units or volume to allocate the joint costs to joint products • The greater the output (however measured), the greater the share of joint costs allocated to the product • This method is also called the average cost method when units of output are used in the costing procedure

  21. The Physical Units Method: Example Assume Johnson Seafood produces tuna filets and canned tuna for distribution to restaurants and supermarkets:

  22. The Physical Units Method (continued)

  23. The Physical Units Method: Summary

  24. Relative Sales Values at Split-off Method • The sales value at split-off method allocates joint costs to joint products on the basis of their relative sales values at the split-off point • This method can only be used joint products can be sold at the split-off point

  25. Sales Value at Split-off Point: Example Using the same example, the sales value at split-off point method produces the following results:

  26. Sales Values at Split-off Point Method: Summary

  27. The Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method • The NRV method can be used when joint products cannot be sold at split-off • The net realizable value(NRV) of a product is the product’s estimated sales value at the split-off point • NRV is determined by subtracting additional processing and selling costs beyond the split-off point from the estimated ultimate sales value of the product

  28. The Net Realizable Value Method: Example Assume Johnson Seafood also produces cat food from the raw, unprocessed tuna

  29. The NRV Method: Example (continued)

  30. The NRV Method: Summary

  31. By-Product Costing • Asset Recognition Methods: • Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method • Other Income at Production Point Method • Revenue Methods: • Other Income at Selling Point Method • Manufacturing Cost Reduction at Selling Point Method • The main difference between these methods is the former grouping records by-product produced as inventory at NRV, while the latter grouping recognizes by-product revenue in the period sold