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  1. Shell Scripting Shubin Liu, Ph.D. Research Computing Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  2. Agenda • Introduction • UNIX/LINUX and Shell • UNIX Commands and Utilities • Basic Shell Scripting Structure • Shell Programming • Variable • Operators • Logic Structures • Examples of Application in Research Computing • Hands-on Exercises The PPT/WORD format of this presentation is available here: http://its2.unc.edu/divisions/rc/training/scientific/ /afs/isis/depts/its/public_html/divisions/rc/training/scientific/short_courses/

  3. Why Shell Scripting ? • Shell scripts can be used to prepare input files, job monitoring, and output processing. • Useful to create own commands. • Save lots of time on file processing. • To automate some task of day to day life. • System Administration part can be also automated.

  4. Objectives & Prerequisites • After this workshop, you should be: • Familiar with UNIX/LINUX, Borne Shell, shell variables/operators • Able to write simple shell scripts to illustrate programming logic • Able to write scripts for research computing purposes • We assume that you have/know • An account on the Emerald cluster • Basic knowledge of UNIX/LINUX and commands • UNIX editor e.g. vi or emacs

  5. History of UNIX/Linux • Unix is a command line operating system developed around 1969 in the Bell Labs • Originally written using C • Unix is designed so that users can extend the functionality • To build new tools easily and efficiently • To customize the shell and user interface. • To string together a series of Unix commands to create new functionality. • To create custom commands that do exactly what we want. • Around 1990 Linus Torvalds of Helsinki University started off a freely available academic version of Unix • Linux is the Antidote to a Microsoft dominated future

  6. What is UNIX/Linux ? Simply put • Multi-Tasking O/S • Multi-User O/S • Available on a range of Computers • SunOS Sun Microsystems • IRIX Silicon Graphics • HP-UX Hewlett Packard • AIX IBM • Linux ….

  7. UNIX/LINUX Architecture

  8. What is a “Shell”? user Shell user OS user • The “Shell” is simply another program on top of the kernel which provides a basic human-OS interface. • It is a command interpreter • Built on top of the kernel • Enables users to run services provided by the UNIX OS • In its simplest form, a series of commands in a file is a shell program that saves having to retype commands to perform common tasks. • How to know what shell you use echo $SHELL

  9. UNIX Shells • sh Bourne Shell (Original Shell) (Steven Bourne of AT&T) • bash Bourne Again Shell (GNU Improved Bourne Shell) • csh C-Shell (C-like Syntax)(Bill Joy of Univ. of California) • ksh Korn-Shell (Bourne+some C-shell)(David Korn of AT&T) • tcsh Turbo C-Shell (More User Friendly C-Shell). • To check shell: • $ echo $SHELL (shell is a pre-defined variable) • To switch shell: • $ exec shellname (e.g., $ exec bash or simply type $bash) • You can switch from one shell to another by just typing the name of the shell. exit return you back to previous shell.

  10. Which Shell to Use? • sh ( Bourne shell) was considered better for programming • csh (C-Shell ) was considered better for interactive work. • tcshand korn were improvements on c-shell and bourne shell respectively. • bash is largely compatible with sh and also has many of the nice features of the other shells • On many systems such as our LINUX clusters sh is symbolically linked to bash, /bin/sh -> /bin/bash • We recommend that you use sh/bash for writing new shell scripts but learn csh/tcsh to understand existing scripts. • Many, if not all, scientific applications require csh/tcsh environment (GUI, Graphics Utility Interface) • All Linux versions use the Bash shell (Bourne Again Shell) as the default shell • Bash/Bourn/ksh/sh prompt: $ • All UNIX system include C shell and its predecessor Bourne shell. • Csh/tcsh prompt: %

  11. What is Shell Script? • A shell script is a script written for the shell • Two key ingredients • UNIX/LINUX commands • Shell programming syntax

  12. A Shell Script Example #!/bin/sh `ls -l *.log| awk '{print $8}' |sed 's/.log//g' > file_list` cat file_list|while read each_file do babel -ig03 $each_file".log" -oxyz $each_file".xyz“ echo '# nosymmetry integral=Grid=UltraFine scf=tight rhf/6-311++g** pop=(nbo,chelpg)'>head echo' ' >>head echo''$each_file' opt pop nbo chelp aim charges ' >> head echo' ' >>head echo'0 1 ' >>head `sed '1,2d' $each_file.xyz >junk` input=./$each_file".com" cat head > $input cat junk >> $input echo ' ' >> $input done /bin/rm ./junk ./head ./file_list #!/bin/sh `ls-l *.log|awk'{print $8}' |sed's/.log//g' > file_list` cat file_list|while read each_file do babel -ig03 $each_file".log" -oxyz $each_file".xyz“ echo'# nosymmetry integral=Grid=UltraFine scf=tight rhf/6-311++g** pop=(nbo,chelpg)'>head echo' '>>head echo''$each_file' opt pop nbo chelp aim charges ' >> head echo' '>>head echo'0 1 '>>head `sed'1,2d' $each_file.xyz >junk` input=./$each_file".com" cat head > $input cat junk >> $input echo' ' >> $input done /bin/rm ./junk ./head ./file_list

  13. File Management and Viewing Filesystem Mangement Help,Job/Process Management Network Management System Management User Management Printing and Programming Document Preparation Miscellaneous UNIX/LINUX Commands • To understand the working of the command and possible options use (man command) • Using the GNU Info System (info, info command) • Listing a Description of a Program (whatis command) • Many tools have a long−style option, `−−help', that outputs usage information about the tool, including the options and arguments the tool takes. Ex: whoami --help

  14. File and Directory Management • cd Change the current directory. With no arguments "cd" changes to the users home directory. (cd <directory path>) • chmod Change the file permissions. Ex: chmod 751 myfile : change the file permissions to rwx for owner, rx for group and x for others (x=1,r=4,w=2) Ex: chmod go=+r myfile : Add read permission for the group and others (character meanings u-user, g-group, o-other, + add permission,-remove,r-read,w-write,x-exe) Ex: chmod +s myfile - Setuid bit on the file which allows the program to run with user or group privileges of the file. • chown Change owner. Ex: chown <owner1> <filename> : Change ownership of a file to owner1. • chgrp Change group. Ex: chgrp <group1> <filename> : Change group of a file to group1. • cp Copy a file from one location to another. Ex: cp file1 file2 : Copy file1 to file2; Ex: cp –R dir1 dir2 : Copy dir1 to dir2

  15. File and Directory Management • ls List contents of a directory. Ex: ls, ls –l , ls –al, ls –ld, ls –R • mkdir Make a directory. Ex: mkdir <directory name> : Makes a directory Ex mkdir –p /www/chache/var/log will create all the directories starting from www. • mv Move or rename a file or directory. Ex: mv <source> <destination> • find Find files (find <start directory> -name <file name> -print) Ex: find /home –name readme -print Search for readme starting at home and output full path, “/home" = Search starting at the home directory and proceed through all its subdirectories; "-name readme" = Search for a file named readme "-print" = Output the full path to that file • locate File locating program that uses the slocate database. Ex: locate –u to create the database, locate <file/directory> to find file/directory

  16. File and Directory Management • pwd Print or list the present working directory with full path. • rm Delete files (Remove files). (rm –rf <directory/file>) • rmdir Remove a directory. The directory must be empty. (rmdir <directory>) • touch Change file timestamps to the current time. Make the file if it doesn't exist. (touch <filename>) • whereis Locate the binary and man page files for a command. (whereis <program/command>) • which Show full path of commands where given commands reside. (which <command>) File viewing and editing • emacs Full screen editor. • pico Simple text editor. • vi Editor with a command mode and text mode. Starts in command mode. • gedit GUI Text Editor • tail Look at the last 10 lines of a file. Ex: tail –f <filename> ; Ex: tail -100 <filename> • head Look at the first 10 lines of a file. (head <filename>)

  17. File and Directory Management File compression, backing up and restoring • compress Compress data. • uncompress Expand data. • cpio Can store files on tapes. to/from archives. • gzip - zip a file to a gz file. • gunzip - unzip a gz file. • tar Archives files and directories. Can store files and directories on tapes. Ex: tar -zcvf <destination> <files/directories> - Archive copy groups of files. tar –zxvf <compressed file> to uncompress • zip – Compresses a file to a .zip file. • unzip – Uncompresses a file with .zip extension. • cat View a file Ex: cat filename • cmp Compare two files. • cut Remove sections from each line of files.

  18. File and Directory Management • diff Show the differences between files. Ex: diff file1 file2 : Find differences between file1 & file2. • echo Display a line of text. • grep List all files with the specified expression. (grep pattern <filename/directorypath>)Ex: ls –l |grep sidbi : List all lines with a sidbi in them. Ex: grep " R " : Search for R with a space on each side • sleep Delay for a specified amount of time. • sort Sort a file alphabetically. • uniq Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file. • wc Count lines, words, characters in a file. (wc –c/w/l <filename>). • sedstream editor, extremely powerful! • awkan extremely versatile programming language for working on files

  19. Useful Commands in Scripting • grep • Pattern searching • Example: grep ‘boo’ filename • sed • Text editing • Example: sed 's/XYZ/xyz/g' filename • awk • Pattern scanning and processing • Example: awk ‘{print $4, $7}’ filename

  20. Shell Scripting • Start viscriptfilename.sh with the line #!/bin/sh • All other lines starting with # are comments. • make code readable by including comments • Tell Unix that the script file is executable $ chmod u+x scriptfilename.sh $ chmod +x scriptfilename.sh • Execute the shell-script $./scriptfilename.sh

  21. My First Shell Script $ vi myfirstscript.sh #! /bin/sh # The first example of a shell script directory=`pwd` echo Hello World! echo The date today is `date` echo The current directory is $directory $ chmod +x myfirstscript.sh $ ./myfirstscript.sh Hello World! The date today is Mon Mar 8 15:20:09 EST 2010 The current directory is /netscr/shubin/test

  22. Shell Scripts • Text files that contain sequences of UNIX commands , created by a text editor • No compiler required to run a shell script, because the UNIX shell acts as an interpreter when reading script files • After you create a shell script, you simply tell the OS that the file is a program that can be executed, by using the chmodcommand to change the files’ mode to be executable • Shell programs run less quickly than compiled programs, because the shell must interpret each UNIX command inside the executable script file before it is executed

  23. Commenting • Lines starting with # are comments except the very first line where #! indicates the location of the shell that will be run to execute the script. • On any line characters following an unquoted # are considered to be comments and ignored. • Comments are used to; • Identify who wrote it and when • Identify input variables • Make code easy to read • Explain complex code sections • Version control tracking • Record modifications

  24. Quote Characters There are three different quote characters with different behaviour. These are: “ : double quote, weak quote. If a string is enclosed in “ ” the references to variables (i.e $variable ) are replaced by their values. Also back-quote and escape \ characters are treated specially. ‘ : single quote, strong quote. Everything inside single quotes are taken literally, nothing is treated as special. ` : back quote. A string enclosed as such is treated as a command and the shell attempts to execute it. If the execution is successful the primary output from the command replaces the string. Example: echo “Today is:” `date`

  25. Echo Echo command is well appreciated when trying to debug scripts. Syntax : echo {options} string Options: -e : expand \ (back-slash ) special characters -n : do not output a new-line at the end. String can be a “weakly quoted” or a ‘strongly quoted’ string. In the weakly quoted strings the references to variables are replaced by the value of those variables before the output. As well as the variables some special backslash_escaped symbols are expanded during the output. If such expansions are required the –e option must be used.

  26. User Input During Shell Script Execution • As shown on the hello script input from the standard input location is done via the read command. • Example echo "Please enter three filenames:” read filea fileb filec echo “These files are used:$filea $fileb $filec” • Each read statement reads an entire line. In the above example if there are less than 3 items in the response the trailing variables will be set to blank ‘ ‘. • Three items are separated by one space.

  27. Hello script exercise continued… • The following script asks the user to enter his name and displays a personalised hello. #!/bin/sh echo “Who am I talking to?” read user_name echo “Hello $user_name” • Try replacing “ with ‘ in the last line to see what happens.

  28. Debugging your shell scripts Generous use of the echo command will help. Run script with the –x parameter. E.g. sh –x ./myscript or set –o xtrace before running the script. These options can be added to the first line of the script where the shell is defined. e.g. #!/bin/sh -xv

  29. Shell Programming • Programming features of the UNIX/LINUX shell: • Shell variables: Your scripts often need to keep values in memory for later use. Shell variables are symbolic names that can access values stored in memory • Operators: Shell scripts support many operators, including those for performing mathematical operations • Logic structures: Shell scripts support sequential logic (for performing a series of commands), decision logic (for branching from one point in a script to another), looping logic (for repeating a command several times), and case logic (for choosing an action from several possible alternatives)

  30. Variables • Variables are symbolic names that represent values stored in memory • Three different types of variables • Global Variables: Environment and configuration variables, capitalized, such as HOME, PATH, SHELL, USERNAME, and PWD. When you login, there will be a large number of global System variables that are already defined. These can be freely referenced and used in your shell scripts. • Local Variables Within a shell script, you can create as many new variables as needed. Any variable created in this manner remains in existence only within that shell. • Special Variables Reversed for OS, shell programming, etc. such as positional parameters $0, $1 …

  31. A few global (environment) variables

  32. Referencing Variables Variable contents are accessed using ‘$’: e.g. $ echo $HOME $ echo $SHELL To see a list of your environment variables: $ printenv or: $printenv | more

  33. Defining Local Variables • As in any other programming language, variables can be defined and used in shell scripts. • Unlike other programming languages, variables in Shell Scripts are not typed. • Examples : a=1234 # a is NOT an integer, a string instead b=$a+1 # will not perform arithmetic but be the string ‘1234+1’ b=`expr $a + 1 ` will perform arithmetic so b is 1235 now. Note : +,-,/,*,**, % operators are available. b=abcde # b is string b=‘abcde’ # same as above but much safer. b=abc def # will not work unless ‘quoted’ b=‘abc def’ # i.e. this will work. IMPORTANT NOTE: DO NOT LEAVE SPACES AROUND THE =

  34. Referencing variables--curly bracket • Having defined a variable, its contents can be referenced by the $ symbol. E.g. ${variable} or simply $variable. When ambiguity exists $variable will not work. Use ${ } the rigorous form to be on the safe side. • Example: a=‘abc’ b=${a}def # this would not have worked without the{ } as #it would try to access a variable named adef

  35. Variable List/Arrary • To create lists (array) – round bracket $ set Y = (UNL 123 CS251) • To set a list element – square bracket $ set Y[2] = HUSKER • To view a list element: $ echo $Y[2] • Example: #!/bin/sh a=(1 2 3) echo ${a[*]} echo ${a[0]} Results: 1 2 3 1

  36. Positional Parameters • When a shell script is invoked with a set of command line parameters each of these parameters are copied into special variables that can be accessed. • $0 This variable that contains the name of the script • $1, $2, ….. $n 1st, 2nd 3rd command line parameter • $# Number of command line parameters • $$ process ID of the shell • $@ same as $* but as a list one at a time (see for loops later ) • $? Return code ‘exit code’ of the last command • Shift command: This shell command shifts the positional parameters by one towards the beginning and drops $1 from the list. After a shift $2 becomes $1 , and so on … It is a useful command for processing the input parameters one at a time. Example: Invoke : ./myscript one two buckle my shoe During the execution of myscript variables $1 $2 $3 $4 and $5 will contain the values one, two, buckle, my, shoe respectively.

  37. Variables • vi myinputs.sh #! /bin/sh echo Total number of inputs: $# echo First input: $1 echo Second input: $2 • chmod u+x myinputs.sh • myinputs.sh HUSKER UNL CSE Total number of inputs: 3 First input: HUSKER Second input: UNL

  38. Shell Programming • programming features of the UNIX shell: • Shell variables • Operators • Logic structures

  39. Shell Operators • The Bash/Bourne/ksh shell operators are divided into three groups: definingandevaluating operators, arithmetic operators, and redirecting and piping operators

  40. Defining and Evaluating A shell variable take on the generalized form variable=value (except in the C shell). $set x=37; echo $x 37 $unset x; echo $x x: Undefined variable. You can set a pathname or a command to a variable or substitute to set the variable. $ setmydir=`pwd`; echo $mydir

  41. Pipes & Redirecting Piping: An important early development in Unix , a way to pass the output of one tool to the input of another. $ who | wc −l By combining these two tools, giving the wc command the output of who, you can build a new command tolist the number of users currently on the system Redirecting via angle brackets: Redirecting input and output follows a similar principle to that of piping except that redirects work with files, not commands. tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]' < $in_file > $out_file The command must come first, the in_file is directed in by the less_than sign (<) and the out_file is pointed at by the greater_than sign (>). Linux Commands

  42. Arithmetic Operators • expr supports the following operators: • arithmetic operators: +,-,*,/,% • comparison operators: <, <=, ==, !=, >=, > • boolean/logical operators: &, | • parentheses: (, ) • precedence is the same as C, Java

  43. Arithmetic Operators • vi math.sh #!/bin/sh count=5 count=`expr $count + 1 ` echo $count • chmod u+x math.sh • math.sh 6

  44. Arithmetic Operators vi real.sh #!/bin/sh a=5.48 b=10.32 c=`echo “scale=2; $a + $b” |bc` echo $c chmod u+x real.sh ./real.sh 15.80

  45. Arithmetic operations in shell scripts

  46. Shell Programming • programming features of the UNIX shell: • Shell variables • Operators • Logic structures

  47. Shell Logic Structures The four basic logic structures needed for program development are: • Sequential logic: to execute commands in the order in which they appear in the program • Decision logic: to execute commands only if a certain condition is satisfied • Looping logic: to repeat a series of commands for a given number of times • Case logic: to replace “if then/else if/else” statements when making numerous comparisons

  48. Conditional Statements(if constructs ) The most general form of the if construct is; if command executes successfully then execute command elif this command executes successfully then execute this command and execute this command else execute default command fi However- elif and/or else clause can be omitted.

  49. Examples SIMPLE EXAMPLE: if date | grep “Fri” then echo “It’s Friday!” fi FULL EXAMPLE: if [ “$1” == “Monday” ] then echo “The typed argument is Monday.” elif [ “$1” == “Tuesday” ] then echo “Typed argument is Tuesday” else echo “Typed argument is neither Monday nor Tuesday” fi # Note: = or == will both work in the test but == is better for readability.

  50. Tests • string1 = string2 True if strings are identical • String1 == string2 …ditto…. • string1 !=string2 True if strings are not identical • string Return 0 exit status (=true) if string is not null • -n string Return 0 exit status (=true) if string is not null • -z string Return 0 exit status (=true) if string is null • int1 –eq int2 Test identity • int1 –ne int2 Test inequality • int1 –lt int2 Less than • int1 –gt int2 Greater than • int1 –le int2 Less than or equal • int1 –ge int2 Greater than or equal