Electronic Business Innovation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Electronic Business Innovation

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Electronic Business Innovation

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  1. Electronic Commerce Technology

  2. Technology • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol • TCP/IP • TCP • Data transport • IP • Routing • Addressability

  3. Data transport • Circuit switching • Resource dedication • Packet switching • Resource sharing • Split messages into packages • Number packages • Reassemble packages

  4. Routing • Dynamically determining the best route through the network • Packets may not all take the same path

  5. Addressability • Every server must be uniquely addressable • InterNIC assigns unique IP addresses • An IP address • 32-bit number • 4 groups of decimal numbers in the range 0 - 255 • • mis.cba.uga.edu

  6. Infrastructure

  7. National information infrastructure • The foundation • Hardware • The communication networks • TV, radio, telephone, Internet • Critical to national competitiveness

  8. Message distribution infrastructure • Software for sending and receiving messages • EDI, e-mail, HTTP

  9. Electronic publishing infrastructure • The content layer • The Web • Uniform resource location (URL) • Network protocol (HTTP) • Markup language (HTML)

  10. Business services infrastructure • Support common business processes • Secure transmission of data • Encryption • Authentication • Electronic money exchange

  11. Electronic commerce application • The top layer

  12. HTML vs. PDF

  13. PDF • Portable Document Format • Adobe Acrobat • Exchange • Reader (free) • Electronic publishing from any application

  14. HTML • A markup language • Marks a particular portion of text • <strong>Important</strong> • Browser determines how presented

  15. Electronic commerce topologies

  16. Internet Computer Organization Server Legend Internet backbone

  17. Intranet Firewall

  18. Extranet Firewall Firewall

  19. Electronic data interchange (EDI) • The electronic exchange of standard business documents • Standardized data formats for common business documents • ANSI X.12 • EDIFACT

  20. Advantages of EDI • Reduced paper handling • Real time exchange of data • Fewer errors • Enhanced coordination • Acceleration of money flows

  21. Limitations of EDI • Almost 80% of information flow between companies is still on paper • VANs are too expensive for many smaller firms • EDI will become Internet based because of lower costs

  22. Security • The openness of the Internet makes security more difficult • Computer technology can be used to attack the Internet

  23. Data access control • Controlling who has access • However, goal is often to attract not restrict visitors • Authentication mechanisms

  24. Firewall • A device placed between an organization’s network and the Internet • Monitors and controls traffic between the Internet and Intranet • Approaches • Restrict packets to those with designated IP addresses • Restrict access to applications

  25. Encryption • Encryption is as old as writing • Sensitive information needs to be remain secure • Critical to electronic commerce • Encryption hides the meaning of a message • Decryption reveals the meaning of an encrypted message

  26. Public key encryption Sender Receiver Encrypt Decrypt Receiver's public key Receiver's private key

  27. Signing • Message authentication Sender Receiver Verify Sign Sender's private key Sender's public key

  28. Electronic money • Electronic commerce needs • speed • security • privacy • internationalization • Paper-based systems are inadequate

  29. Electronic funds transfer • Introduced in the late 1960s by banks • Electronic check writing • Fast and flexible • All transaction must pass through the banking system and are recorded • No anonymity

  30. Digital cash • Electronic parallel of notes and cash • Prepaid cards • Smart cards • Combines many functions • Privacy of cash • Can be lost or stolen

  31. Ecash • Digicash can be used to withdraw and deposit electronic cash over the Internet • Anonymity • Need a digital bank account • Person-to-person transfers • Uses public-key encryption

  32. Credit card • Safe, secure, and widely used • Secure servers and clients support the use of credit cards • Credit card suppliers are working to improve security (SET) • Does not support person-to-person transfers • Does not have the privacy of cash

  33. Electronic moneycharacteristics

  34. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) • Created by Netscape for secure message transmission. • Uses public-key encryption • Browser is the client • Netscape servers can be enabled for SSL • Other servers can be enabled by installing the Netscape SSLRef program library

  35. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) • Backed by Visa and MasterCard • Based on cryptography and digital certificates • Digital certificates uniquely identify the parties to a transaction • An electronic credit card • Registries for authentication • A digital signature is used to guarantee a sender’s identity

  36. SET Components • Cardholder wallet • Merchant server • Payment gateway

  37. The SET process • Certificate authority • Computerworld quick study • http://www2.computerworld.com/home/features.nsf/all/980629qs

  38. SET pros and cons • Merchant cannot decipher credit card details • SSL is well-established and simpler

  39. Java • Object oriented • Portable network programs • Program is compiled into Java bytecode that can run on any server or client in a network that has a Java virtual machine • The Java virtual machine converts the bytecode into instructions that will run on the real computer hardware.

  40. JavaBeans • An object-oriented programming interface from Sun Microsystems that lets you build re-useable applications or program building blocks called components that can be deployed in a network on any major operating system platform

  41. JavaScript • Netscape’s interpreted programming language • Easier and faster to code than Java but not as powerful • Good for editing forms • Can be embedded in HTML pages and interpreted by the Web browser

  42. Cookie • Remembers details of a single visit or stores facts between visits • small file • Visit tracking • Site improvement • Storing information • Subscription services • Customization • New services • Marketing • Banner ads

  43. Shortcomings of HTML • Not extensible • Cannot define own tags or attributes • Unstructured • A presentation language for displaying information • Lack of desciption • Cannot include metadata to describe the data • Each book must have a title • No support for validation

  44. XML • XML is a markup language for documents containing structured information • Overcomes shortcomings of HTML • XML specifies neither semantics nor a tag set • All of the semantics of an XML document are defined by the applications that process them or by stylesheets • HTML is a presentation language with predefined tags

  45. XML • Paper form • Infer meaning from headings, titles, and context • EDI • Infer meaning from position in the record • XML • Infer meaning from surrounding tags

  46. XML • An encoding standard • Exchange format • Vocabularies • Open Financial Exchange Format (OFX) • Chemical Markup Language (CML)