REVIEWING FOR THE U.S. HISTORY EOCT FROM RECONSTRUCTION TO WORLD WAR ONE
Identify legal, political, and socialdimensions of Reconstruction This standard will measure your understanding of how, after the Civil War, the United States worked to resolve the issues that had cause the war. The legal status of the freed African Americans, the defeated southern states, and the Confederate leaders had to be settled to truly reconstruct the United States. Your understanding of Reconstruction is crucial to your knowledge of U.S. history.
Presidential Reconstruction The Reconstruction plans begun by President Abraham Lincoln and carried out by President Andrew Johnson echoed the words of Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address, which urged no revenge on former Confederate supporters. The purpose of Presidential Reconstruction was to readmit the southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. Republicans in Congress, however, were outraged by the fact that the new southern state governments were passing laws that deprived the newly freed slaves of their rights.
Radical Republican Reconstruction To remedy the Radical Republicans’ outrage, Congress forced the southern states to reapply for admission to the Union and to take steps to secure the rights of the newly freed slaves. This resulted in the creation of southern state governments that included African Americans. The key feature of the effort to protect the rights of the newly freed slaves was the passage of three constitutional amendments during and after the Civil War. Southern states were required to ratify all these amendments before they could rejoin the Union.
13th Amendment: abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States • 14th Amendment: defined U.S. citizenship as including all persons born in the United States, including African Americans; guaranteed that no citizen could be deprived of his/her rights without due process • 15th Amendment: removed restrictions on voting based on race, color, or ever having been a slave; granted the right to vote to all male U.S. citizens over the age of 21
During the Reconstruction period, African Americans made progress in many areas. Some of these gains lasted, but others did not. Many African American children were able to attend free schools for the first time. African Americans started newspapers, served in public office, and attended new colleges and universities established for them. One of these institutions, Morehouse College, was founded in Atlanta in 1867 as the Augusta Institute. A former slave and two ministers founded it for the education of African American men in the fields of ministry and education.
Congress also created the Freedmen’s Bureau to help African Americans to make the transition to freedom. The Freedmen’s Bureau helped former slaves solve everyday Northerners who came to the South to help the former slaves and to make money were called carpetbaggers. Southerners who cooperated with the African Americans and carpetbaggers were called scalawags. These two groups also played a role in Reconstruction.
Review Suggestions To prepare for questions on Reconstruction, you should use your textbook to review: • · Presidential Reconstruction • · Radical Republican Reconstruction • · 13th Amendment • · 14th Amendment • · 15th Amendment • · Morehouse College • · Freedmen’s Bureau • · Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment • · Black Codes • · Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson During all the Reconstruction period, the biggest issue in northern and southern states alike was the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. The U.S. Constitution allows Congress to remove the president from office by impeaching (accusing) him of committing “high crimes and misdemeanors,” so Radical Republicans impeached Johnson when he ignored laws they had passed to limit presidential powers.
They passed these laws to stop Johnson from curbing the Radical Republicans’ hostile treatment of former Confederate states and their leaders. After a three- month trial in the Senate, Johnson missed being convicted by one vote, so he was not removed from office merely because he held political opinions unpopular among politicians who had the power to impeach him.
Resistance to Racial Equality Not all white southerners accepted the equal status of former slaves. After the 13th Amendment abolished slavery, all former slave states enacted Black Codes, which were laws written to control the lives of freed slaves in ways slaveholders had formerly controlled the lives of their slaves. Black Codes deprived voting rights to freed slaves and allowed plantation owners to take advantage of black workers in ways that made it seem slavery had not been abolished.
Other white southerners formed secret societies that used murder, arson, and other threatening actions as a means of controlling freed African Americans and pressuring them not to vote. The Ku Klux Klan was the worst of these societies. The Klan, or KKK, was founded by veterans of the Confederate Army to fight against Reconstruction. Some southern leaders urged the Klan to step down because Federal troops would stay in the South as long as African Americans needed protection from it.
All in all, the readmission of states proved difficult and led white southerners to resist Reconstruction and regard their Reconstruction state governments as corrupt. Reconstruction came to an end when Union troops were withdrawn from the South as part of the Compromise of 1877. When the soldiers left and white southerners regained control of their state governments, African Americans were left unprotected. The new southern governments quickly passed laws that deprived blacks of their rights and worked to strengthen the segregation of southern society.
Content Domain III: Industrialization, Reform and ImperialismSpotlight on the Standards Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction: The modern United States was created by social changes associated with the growth of big business and advances in technologies. After Reconstruction, railroad companies and the steel and oil industries expanded and major inventions changed how people lived. Questions about this standard will measure your knowledge of these changes and the factors that brought them about.
Railroads The federal government granted vast areas of western land to railroad owners so they would lay train track connecting the eastern and western states. To complete this heavy work, the owners relied mainly on Chinese labor. These Asian immigrants accepted lower pay than other laborers demanded. The work was dangerous. Many Chinese died in the explosive blasts they ignited to clear the path across the railroad companies’ land. Many others died under rock slides and heavy snowfalls before the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869.
A LOOK AT CONTENT DOMAIN III Test questions in this content domain will measure your understanding of the major events and changes that took place in the United States from the Civil War through the Industrial Revolution. The time period covered by this domain includes events associated with the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Industrial Revolution. Your answers to the questions will help show how well you can perform on the following standards:
Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction • Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth • Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era • Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the 20th century
Review Suggestions To prepare for questions on the period from 1865-1914, you should use your textbook to review: • · Railroad Industry • · Transcontinental Railroad • · Chinese Laborers • · Steel Industry • · Big Business • · John D. Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company Trusts • Monopolies • Thomas Edison • Electric Light Bulb • Phonograph • Motion Pictures
RAILROADS The railroad companies contributed to the development of the West by selling low-cost parcels of their western land for farming. Settlers traveled west on the trains to farm on the fertile soil. Western farmers used the trains to ship their grain east and western cattle ranchers shipped their steers to eastern butchers. Both farmers and ranchers sold their goods to people they could not easily reach without railroads. The railroads earned money by transporting the settlers west and the goods east.
STEEL The growth of American railroads helped expand the industries that supplied the railroad companies’ need for steel rails laid on wood ties, iron locomotives burning huge quantities of coal, wooden freight cars, and passenger cars with fabric-covered seats and glass windows. The railroads were the biggest customers for the steel industry because thousands of miles of steel track were laid. In turn, the railroads had a great impact on the steel industry. To supply their biggest customers, steel producers developed cheap, efficient methods for the mass production of steel rails. These low-cost methods enabled more industries to afford the steel companies’ products.
The rapid rise of the steel and railroad industries between the end of the Civil War and the early 1900s spurred the growth of other big businesses, especially in the oil, financial, and manufacturing sectors of the economy. These big businesses acquired enormous financial wealth. They often used this wealth to dominate and control many aspects of American cultural and political life, and by the beginning of the 20th century, as a consequence of these practices big business became the target of government reform movements at the state and national levels.
Oil Oil companies grew swiftly in this period, most notably the Standard Oil Company founded by John D. Rockefeller. Standard Oil was the most famous big business of the era. Rockefeller also gained control of most other oil companies and created what is called a trust. By means of a trust, Rockefeller came to own more than 90% of America’s oil industry. Standard Oil thus became a monopoly––a single company that controlled virtually all the U.S. oil production and distribution.
Electricity The effects of technological advances made after Reconstruction forever changed how people lived. The most famous inventor of the period is Thomas Edison. He invented the light bulb, the phonograph, motion pictures, a system for distributing electrical power, and many other technologies powered by electricity. Edison also established the concept of industrial research and founded a research laboratory staffed by engineers and technicians in New Jersey.
Edison’s technological achievements were used by other inventors as evidenced by the development of long-distance electricity transmission that enabled Edison’s electric light to illuminate buildings, streets, and neighborhoods across the United States. Electricity soon replaced steam as the source of power for factories. It replaced horses as the means to power streetcars. Of greatest impact, perhaps, was electricity’s replacing humans as the source of power for household appliances. Edison’s inventions eliminated much manual labor that had been associated with everyday household activities and improved Americans’ quality of life.
Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth Questions for this standard will measure your understanding of the causes and effects of American industrial growth. As the United States became the world’s leading industrial power, American society changed in many ways. Native Americans were forced to defend lands the government had earlier promised would be theirs forever. Immigrants found themselves competing for jobs and banding together to fight for decent working conditions. Factory workers began to organize unions that challenged the ways factory owners treated them.
Old Conflict As eastern regions of the United States became more industrialized after the Civil War, people seeking rural livelihoods moved farther and farther west. In turn, Native Americans had to compete with these newcomers for land. For example, the Sioux signed a treaty with the U.S. government promising “no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy” Sioux territory in the Dakotas but, when gold was discovered there, the government tried to buy the land from the Sioux, who refused to sell it. The Sioux leader, Sitting Bull, then fought U.S. Army troops, led his people to a brief exile in Canada, and finally agreed to settle on a reservation.
About 10 years later, Sitting Bull’s people became associated with a Sioux religious movement. The Native Americans believed their ceremonies would cleanse the world of evil, including the white man, and restore the Sioux’s lost greatness. Government officials ordered Sitting Bull’s arrest. He died in a brief gun battle. After Sitting Bull died, several hundred of his people fled to an area of South Dakota called Wounded Knee. U.S. soldiers went there to confiscate weapons from the Sioux. A gun was fired––nobody knows by whom––and U.S soldiers then opened machine-gun fire, killing more than 300 Sioux. This ended the Native Americans’ long conflict against Americans settling Native American lands.
New Immigrants In the decades after the Civil War, more and more Europeans immigrated to America. They differed from earlier immigrant groups who mostly came from northern and western Europe, were typically Protestant, spoke English, and arrived with the government’s welcome. In contrast, many of the new immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe, often were Jewish or Catholic, and usually spoke no English. The U.S. government welcomed the wealthy among these new immigrants but forced poorer people to pass health and welfare tests at government reception centers such as the Ellis Island Immigrant Station located in New York Harbor.
Review Suggestions To prepare for questions on the period from 1865-1914, you should use your textbook to review: • Sitting Bull • Wounded Knee • Ellis Island • American Federation of Labor • Samuel Gompers • Pullman Strike
Whether Asian or European, these new immigrants tended to settle in areas populated by people from the same countries who spoke the same languages and worshipped in the same ways. Because poverty and political instability were common in their home countries, the new immigrants were likely to be poor. They could not afford to buy farmland, so they worked as unskilled laborers and lived mostly in cities. There they created communities to imitate the cultures of their home countries, including foreign-language newspapers, ethnic stores and restaurants, and houses of worship. The new immigrants did not blend into American society the way earlier immigrants had.