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Netherlands Antilles Practical Advancement

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  1. Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development Coordination Group - Barbados Programme of Action -

  2. Kingdom of the Netherlands • Consisting of three countries: • Netherlands Antilles • Aruba • Netherlands • Netherlands Antilles are fully autonomous in internal affairs. Official language Dutch

  3. Netherlands Antilles • Leeward Islands: (Language Papiamentu) • Curaçao Area 444 km2 Population 130.000 • Bonaire Area 288 km2 Population 12.000 • Windward Islands: (Language English) • St Martin Area: 34 km2 Population 42.000 • St. Eustatius Area: 21 km2 Population 2.200

  4. Netherlands Antilles (Cont) • Saba Area 13 km2 Population 1.400 • National Statistics • Overall Area: 800 km2 Distance between Leewards and Windwards: 900 km • Overall Population 185.000 • Per Capita Income US 11,000

  5. Sustainable Development Constraints, Gaps • Federal Government Structure: in practice a federation of five administrative entities, strong local island identification (policy formulation vs. implementation) • 185.000 people, 6 governments and parliaments • Problems of Scale between the islands: • consequences for: • human resources • capital/funding • government motivation

  6. SustainableDevelopment Constraints, Gaps cont. • Problems of Coordination of Policies • Problems of funding sources • Sustainable Development Awareness and Motivation • Skewed income distribution and increasing poverty • Volatile Economics

  7. Actions Taken: • Climate Change • Historical Willemstad and half of Bonaire at sealevel, but no action taken yet against rise of sealevel. Water Desalination Plants critically located • Natural and Environmental Disasters • St. Martin and Curaçao have disaster plans in place. • Waste Management • Landfills on most islands. Federal Cooperation between island waste management companies • two wastewater treatment plants on Curaçao, one or two planned in Bonaire

  8. Actions Taken Cont. : • Coastal and Marine management • Marine Conservation Parks in place in all the islands. Legislation varies • Bonaire and Saba have Coastal Management laws and policies in place, Curaçao not yet approved. • Bonaire internationally recognized as best manegement practice of Coral Reef management together with Belize. Recently also Saba got recognition as such.

  9. Actions Taken Cont. 2 : • Freshwater Resources • Curaçao: 100 percent desalination through distillation in conjunction with energy production • Planned switch to smaller reverse osmosis plants on different sites on the island • Bonaire and St. Martin, 100 % reverse osmosis • Saba and Statia ; Rainwater catchment. Statia has water quality/quantity problems

  10. Actions Taken: (Cont 3) • Land Resources • mining of limestone on Curaçao, limited agriculture on all the islands (less than 5 %) of food consumption

  11. Actions Taken: (Cont 4) • Energy Resources • 80 year Refinery on Curaçao, government owned and leased to Venezuala’s PdVSA • Diesel Energy Plants on all islands • Curaçao and Bonaire have wind and solar energy regimes belonging to the best in the world • Two wind energy parks ion Curaçao and Energy Company just signed agreement with Coastal Hotels for Cold Seawater Cooling Systems

  12. Actions Taken: (Cont 5) • Tourism Resources • Introduction of Quality Tags for marine and land based tourism facilities in Curaçao and Bonaire • 2004 Expansion to other islands • Sustainable Tourism Awareness Programme incoming Tourists from Europe for Curaçao and Bonaire • 2004 Expansion to American, regional and local tourism • Recycling programmes with Hotels • Inclusion Willemstad UNESCO World Heritage List

  13. Actions Taken: (Cont 6) • Biodiversity Resources • National Nature Policy Law and Masterplan in Place • Island legislation behind schedule • Full membership and implementation of SPAW Protocol (Cartagena Convention), CITES, Turtle Convention a.o. • Land and Marine Parks in place on all islands • feasibility Study on going for establishing a national Trustfund for Nature to finance marine and land based parks

  14. Actions Taken: (Cont 7) • Human Resource Development • Profound Reorganization of Primary and Secondary Schooling System on Curaçao, Bonaire and St. Eustatius • Expansion of University through cooperation in the region • ongoing brain drain to Holland • Implementation • BPOA Coordination Group proposed and operative • National Assessment Report planned to be ready well before Mauritius