Islam 101 Dr. Ishaq Zahid firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.islam101.com
Outline • Islamic Theology – Basic Beliefs • Muslim Non-Muslim Relations • Quotations From Quran and Hadith • Questions/Answers
No Compulsion Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from Error. Whoever rejects evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things. (The Holy Quran, 2.256)
World Muslims • 1.2 billion, Muslims represent between 19.2% and 22% of the world's population. • One of every five persons in the world is a Muslim • Second largest religion in the world
Africa 308,660,000 27.4% Asia 778,362,000 69.1% Europe 32,032,000 2.8% Latin America 1,356,000 0.1% North America 5,530,000 0.5% World 1,126,325,000 100% World Distribution of Muslims Source: Britannica Yearbook, 1997
American Muslims • 6 million (The New York Times, Feb. 21, 1989) • About 40% Afro-American • Not all Muslims are Arabs, Not all Arabs are Muslims
The Basics of Faith • Belief in One God (Allah) • Belief in Prophethood • All the Divine Books as revealed by God to various prophets • Angels, Jinns(Demons), Life after Death and the Day of Judgment, Heaven and Hell
Allah – the One God • Allah is the Arabic name for God used by Muslims of the world as well as Arab Christians. • Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (The Quran, Chapter 112)
Allah: name in the Bible • "ELOI, ELOI, LAMA SABACHTHANI? which is, being interpreted, My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" (Mark 15:34). • ALLELUYA = YA ALLA HU = OH! Allah • Elohim =Eloh +im (plural), translated to Allah in the Arabic Bible.
Prophets and Scriptures • SOME PROPHETS:Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Ishaq, Jacob (Israel), Joseph, Benjamin, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Zakareya, John, Jesus, Muhammad (peace be on them) • DIVINE BOOKS:Torah, Zabur (Psalms), Injeel (Gospel), Quran • Belief in ALL prophets of God • Source of All Books is God • Main Message of all Prophets: Islam
Prophet Muhammad • Descendant of Ishmael, the first son of Abraham. • Born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in the year 570 C.E. • Received first revelation at the age 40 through angel Gabriel. • Died in the year 632 C.E, after preaching Islam for 23 years. • GEORGE BERNARD SHAW said about him: "He must be called the Saviour of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness." (The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936)
Quran: The Holy Book • Original intact as given by the Prophet in Arabic • 23 Years of Revelations (610 - 632 C.E.) • 114 Chapters; One Chapter, Multiple Revelations • Chapter (Surah) names • Historic Context matters • Verses Explain Verses • Commentary needed in the light of Arabic, History, and Sunnah
Sunnah and Hadith • Approvals, disapprovals of the Prophet • Compiled in separate books, known as Hadith books, after the death of the Prophet • Classified from authentic to false.
Quran: Verse 8:12 Often misinterpreted Verse by Islam bashers: Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): "I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instill terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them." (The Quran, 8.12) Read for an explanation: http://www.islam101.com/terror/verse8_12.htm
Quran: Verse 8:61 008.061 But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that hears and knows (all things). 060.008 God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loves those who are just. 060.009 God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong.
Worship and Obedience • Prayers (Salah) • Charity (Zakat) • Fasting ( Ramadan) • Pilgrimage (Hajj) • Any act done according to Quran and Sunnah to please God
Prayers (Salah) • Five Daily Prayers from Dawn to Late Evening regulate a Muslim’s day • Prayers involve ablution, standing, bowing, prostrating, sitting postures • Face Kabah, prayers in Arabic as taught by the Prophet. • Additional Prayers optional
Charity (Zakat) • 024.056 So establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and obey the Apostle; that ye may receive mercy. (The Quran) • Required 2.5% charity on yearly savings • A Muslim must be a charitable person • Removing a stone from the road is charity • Greeting with a smile is a charity
Fasting • 002.183 O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint. (The Quran) • Ramadan is 9th month in Islamic Lunar calendar • Daily dawn to sunset fast for 29/30 days (no food or drink) • Eidul-Fitr Holiday at the end
Hajj (Pilgrimage) • Pilgrimage to Makkah once in life time for able Muslims • About 2-3 million Muslims perform Hajj each year from all over the world. • Eidul-Adha: the biggest Muslim Holiday
Video Clip Inside Mecca By National Geopgraphic
Muslim Non-Muslim Relations • A Christian King of Ethopia • Treaty with Jews of Madinah • Letter to Moncks of St. Catherine
A Christian King Negus of Ethopia • Negus gives Protection to migrated Muslims • First Muslim-Christian Governmental Interaction
Treaty with Jews of Madina • Prophet has to migrate to Madina (about 200 miles from Makkah) • Signs a treaty with Jews of Madina • No compulsion in Religion
Letter to Moncks • Verily, I defend them by myself, the servants, the helpers, and my followers, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them. No compulsion is to be on them. • Their churches are to be respected.
Some Quotations from Quran and Hadith • Food • Mothers • Daughters • Human Equality • Justice • Repel Evil with Goodness • Suicide is a grave sin
Food 002.172 O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you, and be grateful to God, if it is Him ye worship. Forbidden: • Meat of animals found dead • blood • the flesh of swine • Alcoholic beverages (such as beer and wine) and intoxicants • Meat on which name of God is not invoked at time of slaughtering or meat on which some one else’s name is invoked Permitted: food of the People of the Book
MOTHERS The Qur'an elevates kindness to parents (especially mothers) to a status second only to the worship of Allah. Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor. (Qur'an 17:23) And We have enjoined on every human being (to be good) to his/her parents: in travail upon travail did his/her mother bear him/her and in years twain was his/her weaning: (hear the command) "Show gratitude to me and to your parents: to Me is (your final) destiny." (Qur'an 31:14)
DAUGHTERS • Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) said, Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, Allah will enter him into Paradise. (Ahmad)
Human Equality in Islam Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay"
Justice in Islam "Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to aggression." (Quran 5:2) "And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness." (Quran 5:8) ‘Oh you who believe, stand up firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor; for God can best protect both. Do not follow any passion, lest you not be just. And if you distort or decline to do justice, verily God is well-acquainted with all that you do.’” (Quran 4:135)
Repel Evil with Goodness • 041.034 Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! • 003.134 Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for God loves those who do good.
Suicide is a Grave Sin O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: But let there be amongst you Traffic and trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily God has been to you Most Merciful! (Quran, 4:29)
Concluding Remarks Strive for peace and justice for all!
Questions and Answers Surah Al-Fatehah (Chapter 1: The Opening) 1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; 3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful; 4. Master of the Day of Judgment. 5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek. 6. Show us the straight way, 7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.