The Allies Win the War Lesson 5
A New Kind of WAR • Moved quickly by tanks, ship, and airplanes. • Didn’t live in trenches • Bombs dropped by planes destroyed everything including thousands of civilians • Area covering almost half the world • Fought on two major front, or battle lines • Africa and Europe and the other the Pacific
War in Africa and Europe • Allies’ battle plan in Europe • Gain control of the Mediterranean Sea • Invade Italy • Defeat Germans and Italians in North Africa • September 1943, Italians surrendered. • German forces kept fighting
D Day • June 6, 1944, the largest water-to-land invasion in history • General Dwight D.Eisenhower led the invasion. • American, Canadian, and British troops crossed the English Channel. • Landed on the beaches of Normandy, in France • Many troops died, but the invasion was successful.
Fighting Continues at Normandy • Allies broke through the German lines • Moved inland, pushing back the enemy • Germans counterattacked at the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 • American general, George Patton turned the Germans back. • Patton was the most outstanding general during the invasion of France.
Russia helps Out • Also fighting the Germans • Pushed back from the east. • May 1945 Allied troops from the east and west met near Berlin, the German capital • Learned Hitler had killed himself. • Berlin fell to the Soviets on May 2, 1945 • Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945 • Victory in Europe Day or V-E Day • End of the War in Europe
President Roosevelt Dies • Did not live to see the end of World War II. • Died on April 12, 1945 • Vice President Harry S. Truman became President.
The Holocaust • Jews, Gypsies, and people with disabilities were hated by Hitler and the Nazis. • Put in concentration camps. • Some were used for cruel medical experiments. • Arrested Jews all over the world. • Mass murdered the Jews, known as the Holocaust. More than 12 million men, women, and children were killed. At least 6 million were JEWS.
War in the Pacific • The Second front of the war. • Japanese troops landed in the Philippines after bombing Pearl Harbor. • Forced Americans to surrender • General Douglas McArthur promised the people of the Philippines, “I shall return.” • Two years later, he did.
Turning Point • Japanese seemed to be winning the war. • May 1942, the U.S. navy defeated the Japanese fleet in the Battle of the Coral Sea. • In June, American ships sank four enemy aircraft carriers at the Battle of Midway. • Japan’s navy never recovered its losses! • Allies began forcing Japanese from the lands they had taken over.
Island Hopping • American plan to take back only the most important islands on the way to Japan. • Allies bombed Japan from the air to weaken the soldiers there • General McArthur began his invasion to take back the Philippine Islands, as promised. • Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa were bloody and cost thousands of lives.
A Secret Weapon • President Truman found out former President Roosevelt had allowed the development of the Atomic Bomb • The most powerful bomb the world had ever known. • Summer of 1945, the atomic bomb was ready. • Truman wanted to end the war quickly to save American lives.
The Sky Explodes • August 6, 1945, the American bomber, Enola Gay dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. • A flash like an exploding Sun • Mushroom shaped cloud rose from the city • Killed over 75,000 civilians • Japan still DID NOT SURRENDER!
The Second Bomb • August 9, 1945, the United States dropped the second bomb on Japan. • Nagasaki. • Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945 • V-J Day or Victory over Japan Day. • World War II was FINALLY over! • Over 300,000 Americans dead and over 15 millions other soldiers from other countries died in the fighting.
Improved Medicine • Penicillin and sulfa helped fight infections. • DDT, a new chemical to kill mosquitoes helped prevent malaria and other diseases.
A Changed World • Another world organization of nations • U.S. supported it this time • United Nations was formed in April 1945. • Goal was to keep world peace • Promote cooperation among nations
Changes in Technology • Airplanes became a major weapon. • Drones, planes that flew without pilots dropped bombs on cities. • Transport planes parachuted soldiers into battle. • Aircraft carriers launched plans from the sea. • Antiaircraft guns, special cannons • Radio detection and ranging RADAR, could located planes and ships in bad weather or at night.
America, the Strongest Nation • America became the world’s strongest nation • Helped other nations rebuild • Trouble on the horizon • Soviet Union became bitter • Soviet Union set up a communist government • Communism is a system in which all property is owned by the government.
U.S. Opinion of Communism • Saw communism as a threat to freedom • Helped support countries in their fight against the spread of communism. • Hostility, or unfriendliness developed between the free world and the communist countries. • Called the “cold war” because it was fought with propaganda and money instead of soldiers and weapons.