Edexcel GCEArt & Design Art and Design Externally Set Assignment Timed Examination: 8 hours
Materials required for examination - NilItems included with question papers - Nil Instructions to Candidates This paper is given to you in advance of the examination so that you can make sufficient preparation. This booklet contains the theme for the Unit 2 Externally Set Assignment for the following specifications: 8030 Art & Design 8031 Fine Art8032 Three-Dimensional Design 8033 Textiles 8034 Photography 8035 Graphic Design 8036 Critical and Contextual Studies in Art
General Introduction Each submission for the Advanced Subsidiary Externally Set Assignment, whether unendorsed or endorsed, should be based on the theme given in this paper. Candidates are advised to read through the entire paper, as helpful starting points may be found outside your chosen endorsement. If you are entered for an endorsed specification, you must produce work in your chosen discipline for the Externally Set Assignment. If you are entered for the unendorsed specification, you will have been working in one or more different disciplines in Unit 1. For the Externally Set Assignment, you may choose to work in one discipline only. The starting points in each endorsed section are designed to help you consider a range of possible outcomes. You may use the suggestions to generate ideas, as guidance to be followed closely, or as background information to be set aside while you pursue your own interpretation of the theme. You must provide evidence that each of the four Assessment Objectives has been addressed. It is anticipated that Advanced Subsidiary candidates will show in the Externally Set Assignment how their knowledge, skills and understanding have developed through their work in Unit 1.
The Assessment Objectives are: AOl Record observations, experiences, ideas, information and insights in visual and other forms, appropriate to intentions AO2 Analyse and evaluate critically sources such as images, objects, artefacts and texts, showing understanding of purposes, meanings and contexts AO3 Develop ideas through sustained investigations and exploration, selecting and using materials, processes and resources, identifying and interpreting relationships and analysing methods and outcomes AO4 Present a personal, coherent and informed response realising intentions and articulating and explaining connections with the work of others
Preparatory Supporting Studies & Timed Examination • Supporting studies: • can take many forms and may be a combination of sketchbooks, notebooks, worksheets, design sheets, large-scale rough studies, samples, swatches, test pieces, maquettes and a range of digital recordings • identify your progress through the theme • show the breadth and depth of research into appropriate sources • show evidence for your developing visual language skills • demonstrate critical review and reflection, recording process of thought and development of ideas • demonstrate appropriate use of contexts: relevant selection with visual and written analyses rather than descriptive copying or comment • show your progress towards a synthesis of ideas. During the examination period you must produce and submit preparatory supporting studies.The form of the supporting studies will reflect your individual approach, but in particular, the contents will provide evidence of your ability to address and fulfill the assessment objectives. Timed Examination You should produce and submit a work or works, produced under examination conditions, within eight hours.
The Theme: 'Links and Connections' The wealth of artifacts associated with links and connections may inspire you to produce interesting visual responses. These objects are worth investigating thoroughly, whether they are gigantic physical structures such as bridges or minute ones, such as the tiny bones in the inner ear which are delicately coupled to allow us to hear. There are also surprising and unexpected links, such as our dependence on the sun for energy and food. Even the tides created by the pull of the moon still have a major influence on our lives. Artists rarely work in total isolation from their peers, especially current practitioners. This contact with, and awareness of their contemporaries' aims and obsessions, can play a significant part in the formation of their own artistic responses, 'No man is an Island' John Donne. The next six slides include some other concepts and ideas inspired by the theme that might help you begin your journey:
mechanical links, chains, couplings, cogs, ropes, reins, shackles, bindings, fasteners, nails, fixings, lifts, stairs Image from http://www.naturesdesktop.com/images/Wallpaper/Fullsize1600/Man-Made/Rusty-chains.jpg
psychology, politics, religion, sects, clubs, societies, language, relationships, generations, family, ideas, improvisation, media/press, history, culture Las Meninas by Velasquez, taken from http://wwwedu.ge.ch/cptic/prospective/enseignements/velasquez/images/meninas
pathways, circuitry, pipes, channels, rivers, transport, bridges, journeys, causeways, maps communications, messages, letters, film, animation, storyboards, hyperlinks, ICT, radio, songs, chords, harmonies
Hellter Fucking Skelter2001Appliqué blanket99 5/8 x 86 5/8 in. (253 x 220 cm) Tracey Emin’s art is one of disclosure, using her life events as inspiration for works ranging from painting, drawing, video and installation, to photography, needlework and sculpture. Emin reveals her hopes, humiliations, failures and successes in candid and, at times, excoriating work that is frequently both tragic and humorous. Taken from www.whitecube.com Read more… http://www.whitecube.com/exhibitions/majorretrospective/ http://www.whitecube.com/artists/emin/texts/92/
Michael Raedecker’s Ins and outs is a sublime dream home. Steely grey in the dead of night, manicured in the expansive landscape, trees in a straight line, boulders placed decoratively for maximum effect: it might be the retirement retreat of a Silicone Valley millionaire, the kind of person who would bother to have their trees pruned into perfect orbs, who'd insist that their sky be as delicate as a Japanese watercolour. Michael Raedecker's paintings are always little seeds of gossip. Drawn to this house by the impossible intensity of the light - made up of countless tiny pink and yellow threads - the first instinct is that something suspicious is happening within. (www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/artists/michael_raedecker.htm) Unrefined cotton fibre weaving, knots, nets, sewing, knitting, elastic, polymers, fibres weaving, knots, nets, sewing, knitting, elastic, polymers, fibres Michael Raedeker – In and out
Destructive superstition2004, Acrylic and Thread on Linen198 x 330cm The Dutch have always been masters at still life. Raedecker's flowers have a subtle quality of unparalleled grace captured in a glow of intellectual order and mathematical refinement. He presents a canvas and a half as one: a classical and elegant subject doubled, like gliding seamlessly from one film still to the next. The heavily rendered bouquet almost acts as a propellant weight. Stitched delicately along the background, an attenuate tangle of lines provides a further sense of motion. Reminiscent of sheet music, Raedecker presents a painting with the enveloping ambience of a film complete with soundtrack. Flora by Audrey Walker
light, photosynthesis, sound, positive and negative space, spatial relationships, colour combinations, emotion, colour. Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio
Set out under the endorsed headings, the following sections explore in greater depth some starting points on the theme of 'Links and Connections'. Read the whole paper including the starting points outside your chosen endorsement, as any of them may provide the inspiration for your focus. You should use these as an aid to developing a context for your responses to the theme. Stylistic 'borrowing' or simply copying the work of another artist would not be appropriate. You may pursue one of these starting points or devise one of your own.
6032B: Fine ArtOptional disciplines:painting and drawing,printmakingsculpturealternative media The following slides include optional starting points!
Michelangelo - Creation mural Knots, chains, clothing, interlocked hands, shackles and bindings are some examples of physical links between objects that create interesting shapes and forms. Although they are commonplace objects they produce complex visual images. Organic and inorganic artifacts combined can make spectacular dynamic statements. Wire fencing cutting into tree bark, harness pulling against horse's flanks, trawlers' nets bulging with fish and ropes and chains hauling, or securing cargo. Celtic and Islamic designs explore these ideas of interlocking forms. These ancient patterns inspired designers such as William Morris and William de Morgan. Their influence can also to be seen in the Pre-Raphaelite and Art Nouveau art movements
William Morris http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/ceramics/object_stories/morris_demorgan_tile_panel/index.html
Artists have explored their connections with their immediate environment and society as subject matter for their work. These images leave fascinating social documents recording instances in time and fashions of the period. These personal insights and relationships with friends and contemporaries are often sensitively explored through life studies and portraits • The ability to create an image that expressively captures something of the spirit of the sitter, still seems to have a place in contemporary culture. Lovis Corinth, Frida Kahlo, Velasquez, Paula Rego, Anthony Green and Sarah Lucas, are some of the many artists that successfully explore narrative in their portraits. Paula Rego - Vanitas
It may be that our primordial relationship with the ocean accounts for the fact that we seem drawn to the coast, or in fact any large body of water, for our rest and relaxation. Artists have also been attracted to this subject throughout history, responding in many diverse and fascinating ways. Those not able to access the sea have turned towards rivers and lakes to satisfy their fascination with water, its effect on the landscape and its mysterious inhabitants. William Turner, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro and Andre Derain attempted to capture the atmosphere and visual complexity of the water's surface. In contrast Lorraine Shemesh explores the optical transformations created below the surface. William Turner. (It’s at the Tate!)
Sculptors, painters and printmakers often use techniques and methods derived from the practical and commercial heritage of the materials they use. It is interesting to see how they utilise the unique marks produced by brushes, lithography plates, etching needles, chisels, saws and welding torches. These are exploited to expressive effect in a totally non-functional way. The surface quality of any end product whether it is two or three-dimensional, is inextricably linked to the process that produces it. Artists such as Frank Auerbach and Lucian Freud create three dimensional surfaces with paint. Sculptors such as Auguste Rodin and Antony Gormley sometimes leave the chisel marks and weld seams on their work. Lucian Freud, "Reflection" (1985)
6032C: Three-Dimensional Design Optional disciplines Theatre design Interior design Product design The following slides include optional starting points!
Isamu Noguchi, Intetra, 1976 Isamu Noguchi was an American-Japanese designer who trained initially as a sculptor. He created inspiring functional entities in his lighting, furniture, gardens and stage sets which retain a strong feeling of sculptural form. His work served to emphasise the inherent connections between the creative arts, such as sculpture and product design, and also their interdependence. His Akari lights and 'organic' furniture paved the way for later designers.
The contradictions of the relationships between human beings and animals are highlighted in the work of Julia Lohmann. She has explored the complex connections between mankind and other creatures in her designs for furniture and lighting. Her 'Cow Benches' incorporate the bodily contours of cows to create striking seating designs. Her lighting creations using animal intestines are meant to "trigger feelings oscillating between attraction and disgust" in the onlooker.
Structures such as bridges and towers often combine the function of crossing a river or valley, or scaling a great height with simple design to produce powerful and monumental forms. The Bauhaus revolutionised the world of design by redefining the links between everyday human existence and modem materials and processes. One of the main objectives of the design school was to unify art, craft and technology.
The interiors of many 17th century pocket watches were immensely complicated and elaborately designed but not really intended to be looked at by the owner. Similarly the ancient Egyptians created highly decorated interior spaces in the tombs of their kings that, once completed, were not meant to been by human beings at all. They were intended to be a connection between the world of the living and the afterlife, to which the Egyptians believed the dead pharaoh would travel. Grayson Perry uses ceramic forms as a vehicle for the narratives he creates using detailed imagery on the surface to communicate with his viewer.
6032D: TextilesOptional disciplines:constructed textiles dyed textilesprinted textiles fine art textiles fashion textilesThe following slides include optional starting points!
Below - Adam & Eve Naming the Animals, Panel 1 (of 11), Harriet Powers' 1st Story-Bible Quilt Right - "Bible Quilt" by Harriet Powers. • Harriet Powers was born a slave in Georgia in 1837. Two of her quilts are the most famous examples of the Southern American quilting tradition. Although her bold, simple designs record stories from the Bible, the tradition of using applique for telling stories in this way can be traced to artistic practices from Benin. In this way, her work links the European and African traditions that have influenced her. Paul Gauguin's later work shows evidence of the influence of traditional Tahitian art on his own European style. Both artists created works which incorporate the characteristics of two distinct cultures.
Cathy De Monchaux creates sculptures in which sensuous soft areas connect, but contrast with harder less appealing surfaces. She explores the tension that is created when materials like velvet or leather are juxtaposed with steel or concrete in the same structure. In Don't Touch My Waist (1998), she combines brass, leather, fur, lead and chalk in a thought-provoking and unsettling construction, where the surfaces are physically linked but somehow incongruous. Above left - 9/31 Above right -Don't Touch My Waist
"Linen Lean-To" tapestry bas-relief, 1967–68 • Interlinking elements often form the basis of textile art. In weaving, the weft and warp threads intersect to bind the whole structure together. Sheila Hicks is an artist whose work is based on fibers and incorporates elements of sculpture and performance. She uses heavy woven fabrics embedded with cotton to achieve a sculptural dimension. Sheila Hicks is an internationally recognized artist. She was born in Hastings, Nebraska and received her BFA and MFA degrees from Yale University. Upon completing her studies at Yale Hicks received a Fulbright scholarship in 1957 to paint in Chile. While in South America she developed her interest in working with fibers. After founding workshops in Mexico, Chile, and South Africa, and working in Morocco and India, she now divides her time between her Paris studio and New York.
“Piedras de lana” 1990 collection: Museo de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile Sheila Hicks, “Eventail” [fan] 1989 our de Rohan, Paris hoto by Cristobal Zañartu Sheila Hicks
Fashion designers can create dramatic and inspiring collections by connecting seemingly incongruous sources in their work. In his Spring/Summer 1997 collection John Galliano combined classic Dior themes with exotic Masai tribal forms to make silk evening dresses accented with colourful beaded choker necklaces. Other influences on his work have been the Soviet Red Guard, Edwardian elegance and Surrealism. John Galliano - Chinese inspired collection
6032E: Photography optional disciplines: photography digital photography film and video. The following slides include optional starting points!
The dominance of the single image is being challenged by photographers who use sequences and series of images to explore environments and themes. Jan Dibbetts and Mark Klett are artists who have created images that explore the changes which occur in any location through continually visiting and recording. By justaposing these images, the artists create a documentary of random changes in a single location. “The camera records something quite different from what we see” Image and quote from www.newyorkartworld.com/reviews/dibbets.html
Images can often link together several locations or situations with which the photographer has a unique relationship. For example, Torn Wood spent several years recording his journey to and from work by public transport. Wood discovered that by recording what he found visually interesting or stimulating he created a unique visual record of something which could be considered quite mundane. His project Bus Odyssey (2001) is the outcome of this work, showing the people and environments around Liverpool. The family album connects various generations, times and identities. Interestingly, several artists including Joachim Schrnid and Martin Mlecko have made careers from finding and using discarded images from family albums. Here new connections and stories arise from these images, as in the re-presented Iranian studio images of Bahrnan Jalali.
In the book Elment.(1979) by Ted Hughes and Fay Godwin, both artists explore an emotional connection, in words, poems and pictures, with the Pennines of West Yorkshire. Photographers and artists often try to illustrate an emotional connection to a place, town or city.
6032F:Graphic Design • optional disciplines: • Advertising • Illustration • Packaging • Typography • Multimedia • The following slides include optional starting points!
The initial attraction when browsing for a CD, book or magazine is the cover. This design often evokes a sense of mystery yet has relevance to the contents hidden within. Musicians continually search for unique yet pertinent covers for their albums such as Kam Tang's CD cover for Gnarls Barkley's St Elsewhere and Vaughan Oliver's CD cover for The Pixies Surfer Rosa. Jonny Hannah's cover for the novel A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole and Tim Gravestock's cover for Julian Barnes' A History of the World in lOlh Chapters, are examples of books that demonstrate this.
· Symbols that link and connect text have frequently been used in creative and imaginative ways. Innovative methods have been used, including distorting letters to interconnect relevant paragraphs or sentences. Examples of these can be seen in illustrated manuscripts. These transform the initial capital of a paragraph to create a complex image, sometimes inspired by the text. These may be simply decorative or be used to tie several lines of script together. Tom Phillips in his Humument books sometimes obliterates text on a page to highlight key words, joining them to others to create new meanings from the original text.
Commercial companies create a corporate identity linked by a common design. This goes way beyond 'a simple logo arid can embrace the whole theme of the company's merchandise and services. Restaurants adopt a common motif that runs through their decor, posters, menus and flyers. The blue colour and eagle that Barclays Bank uses for all its products, and the black horse on a green background used by Lloyds are two examples. With both these institutions the relevant colours dominate lobbies, stationery and even the dress code of the employees
Tourist guide maps and antique nautical charts use the map format to create a visually stimulating image whilst still allowing the viewer to access the essential links to key aspects of the town or coast. The most effective use a vast array of patterns, photographs, images and texts to make unique compositions. The final product becomes an interesting collage/photomontage by unifying disparate images. Tourist guides can be compared to the 17th century maps by John Speed where the visual impact of the whole image was as important as the information it contained.