Counterfeit consciousness - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Counterfeit consciousness

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  1. Artificial Intelligence "Let me put it this way, Mr. Amer. The 9000 series is the most reliable computer ever made. No 9000 computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information. We are all, by any practical defintion of the words, foolproof and incapable of error.“ HAL 9000 Computer in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. Later, HAL killed four astronauts and tried to lock the fifth one out of the spaceship on the way to Jupiter.

  2. What is Artificial Intelligence? • Hard to define intelligence • Duplicating the qualities that we associate with intelligence in a machine • The Turing Test • Instructor’s Definition: • Programming a machine to respond appropriately to a situation we cannot forsee

  3. Topics Under Arificial Intelligence • Expert systems • Natural language processing • Voice recognition • Machine vision • Machine learning • Parallel processing

  4. Expert Systems • Replicating the qualities of human expertise in a limited domain • Idiot savant

  5. Expert Systems (cont.) • Major Components • Knowledge base • Knowledge acquisition subsystem • Expert system shell has an empty knowledge base

  6. Expert Systems (cont.) • Building an expert system • Requires a domain expert and a knowledge engineer • Iterative questioning and answers (prototyping) • Populating the knowledge base with rules • Testing

  7. Expert Systems (cont.) • Example expert systems applications • MYCIN - medical diagnosis of blood diseases • American Express - credit authorization (no credit limits) • Audit planner/advisor for accountants

  8. Natural Language Processing • Allows us to communicate with computer the same way we communicate with each other • Problem - more is being communicated than is contained in the words. Must understand: • Syntax of language • Context • General understanding of the world

  9. Voice Recognition • Add problems of understanding human voice to those of NLP • Accents • Pronunciation different based on context • Separation of continuously spoken words • Useful in limited areas • Restricted domain (collect call connection) • One speaker

  10. Machine Vision • Allowing computers to “see” • Digitizing an image is easy • Must interpret the image so computer can act on what it sees • Filter out irrelevant details • Produce a description meaningful to computer • Applications • Let robots see so they can process under more uncertainty • Guided missiles

  11. Machine Learning • Computer program that automatically improves its performance through experience • Two major technologies • Neural network • Genetic algorithms

  12. Parallel Processing • Really an enabling technology • Approaching the limits of Von Neumann model • More of a software problem than hardware (dividing up a problem into multiple, independent threads)

  13. The Sum of it All • Adjustment of ambition • Orientation towards ends, rather than means • Not to imitate life in all its respect • Expert systems is most commercialized