English Sentence structure (The Network) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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English Sentence structure (The Network)

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  1. English Grammar (The Matrix) Parts of Speech Course: INGL. 3021/3022 Oral and Written EnglishProfessor: Aníbal Muñoz

  2. Definitions Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections Determiners Subordinators Interrogatives Qualifiers Sentence combinations Yes/no questions Information questions Punctuation rules Capitalization rules Preview

  3. Grammar • definition The grammar of a language is a complex of systems that may be analyzed and studied on these three levels: (Noam Chomsky’s UG) • Phonology (set of sounds/ symbols) • Morphology (combinations of sounds that carry single units of meaning) 3. Syntax (how single units of meaning are combined to form words, phrases and sentences.

  4. Parts of speech(Nouns) • Nouns • Definition • Proper / common • Singular / plural (annex) • Count / non-count /abstract (annex) (how much –how many) • Collectible (group nouns) • Units of measurement (Reference: Schramper Azar, Betty,1996. Basic English Grammar)

  5. Definition (proper and common nouns) • Nouns – words used to name a person, place, thing, object, quality, idea, concept, or an action. Ref. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2001) • Proper Nouns- special or particular name given to common nouns to distinguish them from others of the same kind. Example: common- woman proper Martha

  6. Proper and common nouns

  7. Nouns (singular and plural) • Rule No. 1 (Add –s to the end of noun) cup cups student students • Rule No.2 consonants before “y” change –y to iand add –es city -cities party- parties lady-ladies • Rule No.3 vowels before “y” add –s boy –boys key –keys day -days

  8. Singular and plural (cont.) • Rule No. 4 (–f and –fe endings) change the –f or –fe to v and –es life –lives wife –wives thief –thieves • Rule No. 5 (sh, ch, x, ss endings) add –es bush –bushes match –matches box -boxes kiss -kisses • Rule No. 6 (consonant + o) add –es (vowel +o) –s tomato –tomatoes radio radios

  9. Baby Boy City Country Lady Party Tray Key Dictionary cowboy They have one girl and two ______. I visited many _______ last year. Women give birth to _______. She lost the _____ of the car and the house! _____ rides horses in Texas. Madrid and Paris are beautiful _______. We must bring ______ to the English class. Good evening _____ and gentleman. On Saturday nights, I like to go to _______. People carry their food on _____ at the cafeteria. Practice ExercisesUse the plural form to fill in the blanks. (provided list)

  10. Pronunciation of plurals (s / es) • Group A Final –s is pronounced /z/ after voiced sounds (taxicabs, beds, dogs, balls, years, days, boys, trees, etc.) • Group B Final –s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds (books, cups, groups, cats, students, desks, etc.) • Group C Final –s, es is pronounced /ez/ after “s” sounds (classes, horses, boxes, faces) after “z” sounds (sizes, roses, noises) after “sh” sounds (dishes, bushes) after “ch” sounds (matches, sandwiches) after “ge/dge” sounds (pages, ages, bridges, edges)

  11. Irregular plural forms (exceptions) • Child children • Foot feet • Man men • Woman women • Mouse mice • Tooth teeth • Fish fish • _____ people (is always plural) (no s)

  12. Count nouns a book books one book two books some books a lot of books many books a few books Non-count nouns money some money a lot of money much money a little money Common non-count nouns advice, furniture, love, peace, homework, luck information, food, mail, music, traffic, weather, work, bread, cheese, coffee, rice, sand, meat, milk, water, sugar, money, oil, liquids materials (paper) abstracts general food gases Count and noncount nouns

  13. Oral Practice (count vs. non-count)

  14. Pronouns • Definition • Personal pronouns (subject-object) • Possessive adjectives • Possessive pronouns • Reflexive • Indefinite • Interrogative • Demonstrative • Relative • reciprocal

  15. Verbs (verb tenses /conjugation) • Definition • Regular • Irregular verbs • Spelling / pronunciation • Conjugation (annex-practice) • Auxiliary verbs/ modals (annex) • Infinitives • Gerunds

  16. VerbsRegular/ Irregular/ verb tenses Regular verbs (d or ed endings) /d/ sound pronunciation /t/ sound pronunciation /ed/ pronunciation

  17. Irregular verbs • Three forms • Two forms • One form

  18. Verb conjugation • Simple present tense

  19. Verb tenses • Simple past

  20. Verb tenses • Simple future • Another way to express the simple future I am going to work tomorrow. She is going to work next week. They are going to work on Sunday.

  21. Present progressive

  22. Past progressive (continuous)

  23. Future progressive (continuous)

  24. Adjectives • Definition • Articles as adjectives • Order of adjectives in a series (color, size, origin, nationalities, shape, age, etc..) • Past participles / gerunds used as adjectives • Comparatives and superlatives comparisons (annex-practice)

  25. Adverbs • Definition • Adverbs of frequency (annex) • Adverbs of time • Adverbs of location (place) • Adverbs of mode

  26. Prepositions • Definition • IN, ON and AT (annex –time and location) • All prepositions • Transitional expressions (prep. Phrases-annex)

  27. Conjunctions • Definition • Correlative conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions • Subordinate conjunctions • Conjunctive adverbs • Other subordinators (annex)

  28. Interjections and other words • Definition and examples • Onomatopoeias • Numerals (cardinals, ordinals) • Determiners • Qualifiers • Subordinators • interrogatives

  29. Capitalization Rules (annex)Punctuation Rules (annex)Sentence CombinationsYES/NO questionsInformation questions