Methamphetamine and the Work Place North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General
History of Methamphetamine • 1887: Amphetamine was first synthesized by German chemist L. Edeleano. • Amphetamine is used in the medical treatment of Narcolepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Obesity control, and for increased energy.
History of Methamphetamine • 1919: Methamphetamine was first synthesized by Japanese chemist A. Ogata. • 1965: The United States Congress make Methamphetamine and Amphetamine a Schedule II drug, making it illegal to possess unless a person has an prescription.
History of Methamphetamine • 1960’s: Outlaw Biker Groups control the illegal production of Methamphetamine, utilizing the P2P method of production and marketed it as a small white “Cross-Top” pill. • 1960’s: Saw the first testing of the affects of Methamphetamine abuse on the human brain and body.
History of Methamphetamine • 1980’s: There was a trend to move away from the use of the pill form, and market in a powder form. • 1980’s: Methamphetamine begins to surpass Cocaine as the stimulant of choice. • 1980’s: There is a shift from the P2P method to the Ephedrine-Reduction method of production.
History of Methamphetamine • 1980’s: Control of the illegal production and distribution of Methamphetamine begins to shift from the Outlaw Biker Groups to Mexican Nationals. • The Mexican Nationals are able to produce larger quantities of higher quality Methamphetamine, but the Outlaw Biker Groups still control the distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.
History of Methamphetamine • 1990’s-present: Mexican Nationals have taken over the production and distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States. • The illegal production and usage of Methamphetamine, in the Midwest has increased drastically, in the past 10 years.
North Dakota Statistics • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab: 1993: 65 1994: 85 1995: 218 1996: 304 1997: 450
North Dakota Statistics • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab: 1998: 413 1999: 494 2000: 1218 2001: 1505 2002: 767 (To Date)
North Dakota Statistics • In 2000, for the first time the North Dakota State Crime Lab analyzed more Methamphetamine samples then Marijuana samples. • 1979-80: First investigation and seizure of an Amphetamine lab in North Dakota. • 1985: First investigation and seizure of a Methamphetamine lab in North Dakota.
North Dakota Statistics • Methamphetamine Labs Seized: 1995: 3 1996: 4 1997: 1 1998: 5 1999: 17
North Dakota Statistics • North Dakota Statistics: Methamphetamine Labs Seized: 2000: 46 2001: 89 2002: 135 (To Date) • In 2001, approximately 24% of the cases that the NDBCI investigated were Methamphetamine related.
North Dakota Statistics • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 84 (94%) were the Lithium-Reduction (Nazi) Method. • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 52 (58%) were located in the urban areas, while 37 (42 %) were found in the rural area.
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Methods of Ingestion/Onset: 1) Orally: 20-30 minutes 2) Inhalation: 1-5 minutes 3) Injection: Intravenously: 5-7 seconds Intramuscularly: 1-5 minutes Subcutaneous: 1-5 minutes 4) Smoking: 4-6 seconds • The effects of Methamphetamine HCL will last approximately 2-3 hours, and maybe detected in urine 48-72 hours after use.
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Methamphetamine is extremely powerful and addictive central nervous system stimulant, that also affects the cardiovascular system. • Chronic Methamphetamine abuse permanently damages the pleasure center of the brain, so that the only way to experience pleasure would be the continued abuse.
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Central Nervous System Effects: Euphoria Increased Alertness Increased Energy Shakes or Tremors Twitching Dilated Pupils Convulsions Seizures
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Cardiovascular Systems Effects: Increased Pulse Increased Blood Pressure Increased Heart Rate Increased Body Temperature Increased Respiration Cardiac Arrhythmia Stroke Heart Attack
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Other Symptoms/Effects: Insomnia Aggressive/Violent Behavior Irritability Severe Mood Swings Nervous/Anxious Behavior Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Other Symptoms/Effects: Other Psychological Problems Auditory/Visual Hallucinations Clinical Depression False Sense of Power/Confidence Suppressed Appetite/Weight Loss Fainting
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Other Symptoms/Effects: Impotence Body Odor/Increased Sweating Dry Mouth Dry/Itchy Skin Acne/Sores Pale Skin
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Other Symptoms/Effects: Retraction/Bleeding of Gum Tissue Teeth Loss Increased Urine Output Numbness Tingling Sensations Constant “Electric Buzz” in Ears
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Long Term Effects: Fatal Kidney/Lung Damage Possible Brain Damage Clinical Depression Recurring Hallucinations Violent/Aggressive Behavior Weight Loss/Weight Gain
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Long Term Effects: Insomnia Permanent Psychological Problems Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis Lowered Resistance To Illness Liver Damage Stroke
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Long Term Effects: Hepatitis A, B, & C HIV/AIDS (Needle Usage) Permanent Damage to the Pleasure Center Of The Brain Disorganized Lifestyle/Social Life Death
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Overdose Symptoms: Seizures Convulsions Stroke Heart Attack Coma Death
Methamphetamine Pharmacology • Withdrawal Symptoms: Severe Cravings Insomnia/Exhaustion Intense Restlessness Severe Depression Mental Confusion Extreme Hunger