Classify each of these diseases by what organisms cause them.B= Bacteria F=Fungus P=Protist V = Virus O = Other • Strep throat Cold Sores • Pink Eye Flu • Athlete's Foot Mad Cow
Pink Eye • Viral Conjunctivitis
Flu • Influenza virus
Athlete’s foot • Fungus
Mad Cow • bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) • Other – Prions (protein machines)
Classification • Aristotle - 4th century B.C. philosopher • Classified living things into two groups • Animal • Plant • Not based upon evolutionary theory
Terms to Know… • Classification : grouping based on similiarities • Taxonomy : a branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on different characteristics • Monophyletic: common descent from a single ancestor What is the difference between monophyletic, polyphyletic, and paraphyletic?
The Tree of Life Evolves • 1990s = Domains, as proposed by Carl Woese • These 'domains' exist above kingdoms Changing Number of Kingdoms Names of Kingdoms Introduced 1700’s Plantae Animalia Late 1800’s Plantae Protista Animalia 1950’s Animalia Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Archae-bacteria Animalia 1990’s Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae
Today • Domains: Classify all living things into 3 different types based on biochemistry and cellular morphology. • The three domains are ... • Eukarya (eukaryotes) • have a nucleus and well defined complex organelles • Bacteria (Eubacteria) [Prokaryotes] • do NOT have a nucleus and do NOT have well defined complex organelles • Archaea (Archaeobacteria/Archaeabacteria) • do NOT have a nucleus and do NOT have well defined complex organelles • live in extreme environments (eg ocean vents, inside glaciers) Cellular Structure
Cladograms • Cladograms shows how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, scales, etc.
Cladograms • More specifically, cladograms is a method of classifying species of organisms into groups called 'clades' • Consists of an ancestor organism and all its 'descendents' • Essentially, a clade = a single branch = tree of life • Focuses on shared derived characteristics (aka. synapomorphies) • Reflects the relative recency of a common ancestor or the sharing of a homologous feature
Remember • Basis of constructing a valid cladogram is the ability to identify the characteristics of the ancestral population and those of the descendents • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_06
Cladograms are linked to Venn Diagrams • Review front of cladogram sheet
Make a Venn diagram from the following data LA CU GC TE Eats Blue Eats Red Eats goldfish
LA CU GC TE Eats blue Eats green Eats goldfish
Rules • All cladistic groupings must share a common ancestor • All species derived from a common ancestor must be included in the taxon Taxon – a taxonomic group of any size; a group of (one or more) organisms which are usually phylogenetically related and which have common characteristics