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**Introduction to Converter Sampled-Data Modeling**ECEN 5807 Dragan Maksimović**Objectives**• Better understanding of converter small-signal dynamics, especially at high frequencies • Applications • DCM high-frequency modeling • Current mode control • Digital control**v*(t)**D/A A/D v(t) vo(t) Analog-to-digital converter Digital-to-analog converter v(t) t v*(t) t vo(t) t nT (n+1)T (n+2)T T = sampling period 1/T = sampling frequency Example: A/D and D/A conversion**Modeling objectives**• Relationships: v to v* to vo • Time domain: v(t) to v*(t) to vo(t) • Frequency domain: v(s) to v*(s) to vo(s) v(t) t v*(t) t vo(t) t nT (n+1)T (n+2)T T = sampling period 1/T = sampling frequency**Model**v*(t) D/A A/D v(t) vo(t) Analog-to-digital converter Digital-to-analog converter v*(t) H v(t) vo(t) T Sampler Zero-order hold**Sampling**v*(t) v(t) T Sampler v(t) t v*(t) t Unit impulse (Dirac)**Unit impulse**d(t) area = 1 s(t) t Dt Properties Laplace transform unit step**Zero-order hold**v*(t) H vo(t) Zero-order hold v*(t) t vo(t) t nT (n+1)T (n+2)T T = sampling period 1/T = sampling frequency**Zero-order hold: time domain**H d(t) vo(t) Zero-order hold**Zero-order hold: frequency domain**H u(t) vo(t) Zero-order hold**Sampled-data system example: frequency domain**v*(t) H v(t) vo(t) T Sampler Zero-order hold Consider only low-frequency signals: System “transfer function” =**Zero-order hold: frequency responses**fs = 1 MHz MATLAB file: zohfr.m**Zero-order hold: 1st-order approximation**1st-order Pade approximation**Zero-order hold: frequency responses**fs = 1 MHz MATLAB file: zohfr.m**PWM is a small-signal sampler!**PWM sampling occurs at tp (i.e. at dTs, periodically, in each switching period)**General sampled-data model**• Sampled-data model valid at all frequencies • Equivalent hold describes the converter small-signal response to the sampled duty-cycle perturbations [Billy Lau, PESC 1986] • State-space averaging or averaged-switch models are low-frequency continuous-time approximations to this sampled-data model**Application to DCM high-frequency modeling**iL c dTs d2Ts Ts**Application to DCM high-frequency modeling**iL c dTs d2Ts Ts**DCM inductor current high-frequency response**High-frequency pole due to the inductor current dynamics in DCM, see (11.77) in Section 11.3**Conclusions**• PWM is a small-signal sampler • Switching converter is a sampled-data system • Duty-cycle perturbations act as a string of impulses • Converter response to the duty-cycle perturbations can be modeled as an equivalent hold • Averaged small-signal models are low-frequency approximations to the equivalent hold • In DCM, at high frequencies, the inductor-current dynamic response is described by an equivalent hold that behaves as zero-order hold of length D2Ts • Approximate continuous-time model based on the DCM sampled-data model correlates with the analysis of Section 11.3: the same high-frequency pole at fs/(pD2) is obtained • Next: current-mode control (Chapter 12)