Lula da SilvaFernando Henrique Cardosoand Brazil By Ted Goertzel Rutgers University Camden NJ 08102
January 1, 2003 Democratic transition from from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Lula da Silva Born 27 Oct 1945 in the interior of Pernambuco Seventh of eight children Father left for São Paulo and his wife’s cousin just before Lula was born Raised in extreme poverty in the interior of Pernambuco Mother, Dona Lindu, the dominant influence in his childhood Fernando Henrique Born 18 June 1931 in Rio de Janeiro First born of three Good relationship with both parents Raised in a family with a distinguished history Father a leftist army officer, lawyer and politician Paternal grandmother dominant figure at home Childhood
Fernando Henrique with his mother and his paternal grandmother. Lula at 3 years old with sister Maria. The clothes and shoes were loaned to him for the photograph.
FHC: Scion of the Aristocracy Parents and siblings Father beside a bust of FHC’s grandfather. Grandfather on his white horse
Cardoso is a Social Democrat but is often stigmatized as a “neoliberal.” He was elected President in 1994 by an alliance between his Brazilian Social Democratic Party and the Party of the Liberal Front. He was sent to the Senate in1982 by the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. As a youth, he was affiliated with a cultural group of the Brazilian Communist Party.
Some Questions • What difference does the change in ideology and party politics make? • What difference does the difference in personal leadership make? • Why has the Lula government been characterized as “the third term of the FHC government”? • What are the likely future trends?
Lula’s parents: Aristides and Euridice (Dona Lindu) Lula growing up...
Lula on His Father • “I feel bad about my father (tenho mágoa) because I think he was very ignorant. He was a fount of ignorance (um poço de ignorância). He died in1978 as an indigent.” • Lula’s father was illiterate and did not want any of his children to surpass him by going to school. He carried a newspaper to work, sometimes upside down. • He earned enough as a longshoreman in Santos to support two families.
Lula on His Mother • “I thank God for my mother’s courage… At a time of great misery, my mother raised five sons who became poor but honest men and three daughters who did not have to prostitute themselves. I believe this is a very noble thing.” • “My mother sold her watch, her donkey, her religious statues, her family photographs, she sold everything, everything she had to leave the Northeast.”
He felt humiliated and neglected by his father He told his brothers the best thing their father ever did for them was to leave with another woman He rebelled against his father by getting an education and having a more successful career He cried the first time he spent a night away from his mother - on his honeymoon His mother strongly supported his drive to get an education He won the struggle for his mother’s love when she broke with his two-timing father A Mother’s Boy
Lula da Silva Mother and siblings moved to Santos in the back of a truck when he was seven Worked as vendor, shoe shiner and delivery boy Public elementary school Mother separated from abusive husband, moved to São Paulo with children Won admission to three-year training program as a lathe mechanic Fernando Henrique Father encouraged him to pursue his literary and intellectual interests Did well in school, but failed Latin exam for law school Majored in social sciences because of interest in Brazilian nationalism Involved with an intellectual journal linked to the Communist Party Youth
Lula with youthful friends. Fernando Henrique with wife Ruth and son
Lula da Silva Marries a fellow worker Wife and newborn die in childbirth with poor medical care Works as a lathe operator Marries a widow, Marisa, who has a son Becomes active in the metal workers union Jailed briefly by military regime as a strike leader Fernando Henrique Marries a fellow student and starts a family Joins Marxist study group with friends who become leading intellectuals Begins academic career Forced into comfortable exile by the 1964 military coup Becomes intellectual star in exile in Chile and France Young Adulthood
Arrested by the military police in 1980 during a 41 day general strike in the industrial suburbs of Sao Paulo.
Lula’s wife Marisa in front of the church where they were married, and showing the first PT flag which she sewed.
Discussing politics in 1975
Lula da Silva Decided to join the group forming the Workers Party in 1979 when the military allows multiple parties Joins in forming an independent labor federation, the Central Única dos Trabalhadores in 1983 Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984 Fernando Henrique Decides not to join the Workers Party and joins the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Elected as Alternate to the Senate on MDB ticket, succeeds to Senate when Franco Montoro becomes governor of São Paulo Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984 Entering Politics
Discussions in 1979 leading to the founding of the Partido dos Trabalhadores. Upper left is a discussion with Communist Party leaders.
Lula’s Political Campaigns • 1982, loses campaign for governor of São Paulo • 1986, elected to Constituent Assembly to draft new constitution, FHC one of the leaders • 1989, loses run-off for Presidency to Fernando Collor, later impeached for corruption • 1994, loses Presidency to Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the Finance Minister who ended inflation • 1998, loses Presidency to Fernando Henrique Cardoso as country weathers economic storm • 2002, elected President of Brazil on the first round after moderating his platform
Registering the Workers Party in 1980 On the campaign trail
Time goes by and so many at work. Suddenly, this clarity to notice Who has always been sincere and to trust, Without fear of being happy. I want to see it come... Lula-lá! A star is shining! Lula-lá! Hope grows! Lula-lá! In this child-Brazil and in the joy of embracing... Lula-lá! With sincerity, Lula-lá! Certainly! Lula-lá! For you, my first vote, Lula-lá! To make our star shine! Lula-lá! That's we together! Lula-lá! It was worth the wait! Lula-lá! My first vote To make our star shine! ("Lula lá!", by Hilton Acioly, theme-tune of the 1989 campaign).
Campaign Materials 1988
1994 Campaign photos Upper left with Manoelzao Lower left with Cinta Larga and Surui Indians
Victory! 2003 Inauguration
Personal History • FHC: His privileged family background and intellectual brilliance make it difficult for him to relate to common people, through the mass media. He is strong in one-on-one relationships. • Lula - His success story is inspiring and gives him the ability to empathize with common people. People of all classes really want him to succeed. • Lula - His mixture of radical rhetoric and pragmatic policies is rooted in his experience as a union leader and speaks to the emotional and practical needs of the Brazilian people
Biographer Brito Alves on Lula’s Personality • Restless , pugnacious, well spoken, authentic, charismatic, strong willed, persistent and determined, full of initiative, creativity and leadership spirit • Ethical and engaged, struggles tooth and nail for the interests of the workers • Has much in common with George Bush: informality, frankness and human warmth • Likes soap operas, magazines, cooking on a wood stove, smoking, informal socializing. • Emotional, cries easily, likes to touch people, doesn’t like being alone, doesn’t hold grudges
Leadership Traits • Strength - FHC and Lula are both strong leaders working in a democratic framework • Competence - FHC is exceptionally competent, Lula relies on advisors • Empathy - Lula is warm and expressive, FHC is dry and academic, perceived as “distant from the people”
Communicating feelings at a press conference with Finance Minister Antonio Palocci
Political Parties • The Workers Party is more organized and disciplined than Brazil’s other major parties, with the ideological left a marginalized minority • It has a reputation for honesty and idealism, sadly compromised by some recent scandals • Its historic base is the labor aristocracy and state employees - a sort of UAW/AFSCME merger • Cardoso’s Social Democratic Party has more business and middle class private sector support. • The other parties are more regional and careerist, often focused around leading personalities • Party affiliations are often fluid Brazil
Francisco de Oliveiraon the PT and the PSDB • The Workers Party (PT ) is led by workers transformed into operators of pension funds • The Social Democratic Party (PSDB) is led by technicians and economists, many of whom have gone to work in banks • The nucleus of the PSDB was trained at the Catholic University in Rio, the nucleus of the PT was trained at the Getulio Vargas Foundation Business School in Rio • Both parties are based on controlling public funds. Francisco dropped out of the Workers Party in 2003
Lula with Vice President Jose Alencar of the Liberal Party The Liberal Party is a small group with a base among Protestant activists. The alliance with them showed that the PT was willing to play the Brazilian political game of opportunistic coalitions.
Ideology • Lula was always a “bread and butter” unionist and democrat, not a leftist ideologue • The term “Neoliberalism” is used as a way of expressing anti-market feelings without advocating a non-market economy. • “Liberalism” is a positive term as is “Socialism” but neither is used to refer to explicit policies • Both FHC and Lula are social democrats with similar policy goals, but it is not not expedient for Lula to admit this. • Lula is more sympathetic to nationalist and state-led development ideas
The Lula Administration • The key ministries are in the hands of pragmatic moderates, with radical histories, who have continued FHC’s economic model • Less central ministries have been given to more ideological appointees • There have been some difficulties in keeping the troops in line because of the mismatch between rhetoric and resources • There has been a learning curve, many of the functionaries are less experienced than those in the FHC administration
Key Leaders • Key day-to-day leadership is administered by a core of experienced Workers Party leaders that have Lula’s full confidence • Some of these men had quite radical politics in their younger days, but have become convinced that Brazil needs to continue with the general policy framework established by FHC
Antônio Palocci • Finance Minister - primary responsibility for economic policy • Physician and former mayor of Ribeirão Preto, a small city in the state of São Paulo • Formerly a Trotskyist, he was central to the ideological transformation of the PT • Has good relations with the business community • Known for a “light” personal style
José Dirceu • Chief of Staff - operational control of the government • Student Union leader in late 1960s confrontation with the military regime • Exile in Cuba, clandestine activity in Paraná • Founding member of Workers Party • Elected to state and federal legislatures
Dirceu Resigns Because of Corruption Scandal and Returns to Congress in June 2005
The “SuperShorts” Scandal(a political leader caught on an airplane with questionable funds hidden in his underwear)