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Minor Connectors

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  1. Minor Connectors • Connect components to the major connector • Direct retainer • Indirect retainer • Denture base

  2. Functions of Minor Connectors • Unification and rigidity • Stress distribution • Bracing through contact with guiding planes • Maintain a path of insertion

  3. Types of Minor Connectors • Embrasure Minor Connectors • Between two adjacent teeth

  4. Types of Minor Connectors • Embrasure Minor Connectors • Triangular shaped in cross section • Joins major connector at right angles • Relief placed so connector not directly on soft tissue

  5. Types of Minor Connectors • Embrasure Minor Connectors • Contact teeth above height of contour • Prevents wedging & tooth mobility • Alternatively, difficult to seat

  6. Gridwork Minor Connectors • Connect the denture base and teeth to the major connector

  7. Gridwork Minor Connectors • Adjacent edentulous spaces • Usually connect major connector to direct retainers • Open lattice work or mesh types

  8. Gridwork Minor Connectors • Mesh type • Flatter • Potentially more rigid • Less retention for acrylic if openings are small

  9. Gridwork Minor Connectors • Lattice Type • Potentially superior retention • Interferes with setting of teeth, if struts are too thick • Both types are acceptable if correctly designed

  10. Gridwork Relief • Mechanical retention of denture base resin • Allows the acrylic resin to flow under the gridwork

  11. Gridwork Relief • Relief wax is placed in the edentulous areas • 1 mm of relief

  12. Relief Under the Gridwork • Should begin 1.5 - 2 mm from the abutment tooth

  13. Relief Under the Gridwork • Creates a metal to tissue contact adjacent tooth • Preferable since it wears less • Less porous, (hygiene)

  14. Junction With Major Connector • Butt joint with slight undercut in metal • Maximum bulk of the acrylic resin • Prevents thin, weak edges fracturing

  15. Mandibular Gridwork Design • Extend 2/3 of the way from abutment tooth to retromolar pad • Never on the ascending portion of the ridge Stewart's, Fig. 2-55

  16. Maxillary Gridwork Design • Gridwork • 2/3 of the length of from abutment to the hamular notch • Major connector • extends fully to the hamular notch

  17. Gridwork Design Facially just over the crest of the residual ridge

  18. Position of Major Connector Junction • Should be ≈ 2 mm medial to lingual surface of denture teeth • Ensures bulk of resin around teeth

  19. Mandibular Tissue Stops • Contact of metal with cast at posterior of distal extension gridwork • Prevents distortion at free end during hydraulic pressure of processing

  20. No Tissue Stops In Maxilla • Maxillary major connector acts as a tissue stop (no relief)

  21. Proximal Plates • Minor connectors originating from the gridwork in an edentulous area • Broad contact with guiding planes • May or may not terminate in an occlusal rest

  22. Proximal Plates

  23. Proximal Plates • Shifted slightly lingually • Increases rigidity • Enhances reciprocation • Improves esthetics • Often a triangular space below the guiding plane (an undercut)

  24. Proximal Plates • Rigid, cannot be placed in undercut • Block-out placed in undercuts prior to waxing and casting the framework

  25. Zero Degree Block-Out • Does not deviate from path of insertion • Instructions to the laboratory should state “Use zero degree blockout”